[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cultural practices such as organic amendments, rotations, and use of biological control organisms are regularly investigated for their effects on controlling plant diseases but their effects on soil microbial populations are often unexplored. In this study, three different sustainable disease management practices, use of compost amendment, biocontrol organisms, and a potentially disease-suppressive rotation, were established in potato field trials at two sites under different management regimes and histories, and evaluated over three potato cropping seasons for their effects on soil microbial communities. Specific management factors assessed included the presence or absence of a conifer-based compost amendment, addition of one of three different biocontrol organisms (Trichoderma virens, Bacillus subtilis, and Rhizoctonia solani isolate Rhs1A1), and a Brassica napus (rapeseed) green manure rotation crop preceding potato, and treatments were assessed in all factorial combinations. The two farm sites represented organic and conventional potato production practices in Aroostook County, Maine. Compost amendment and rapeseed rotation had the greatest impacts on soil microbial communities, with both treatments increasing total populations of culturable bacteria at both sites over the course of the study, as well as causing detectable shifts in soil microbial community characteristics as determined by sole carbon-source substrate utilization and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles. Compost amendment generally led to increased utilization of complex substrates and increased levels of Gram-positive bacteria and fungi, and compost effects were more pronounced at the conventional site. Rapeseed rotation often resulted in somewhat different effects at the two different sites. Consistent overall effects were observed with the biocontrol amendments Rhs1A1 and T. virens, including increased microbial activity and bacterial populations. Combined effects of multiple treatments were greater than those of individual treatments and were generally additive. These results indicate that each treatment factor had significant and specific effects on soil microbial communities, and that combined effects tended to be complementary, suggesting the potential of combining multiple compatible management practices and their associated changes in soil microbial communities.Highlights► We examined soil amendments at sites with different management histories. ► Rapeseed, compost and biocontrol amendments shifted microbial community structures. ► Compost amendment had more pronounced effects on soils with low organic matter. ► Rapeseed rotation changed microbial populations in soils with more organic matter. ► In combination, compost, rapeseed, and biocontrol treatment effects were additive.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Study of mechanisms responsible for regulating populations of living organisms is essential for a better comprehension of the structure of biological communities and evolutionary forces in nature. Aphids (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) comprise a large and economically important group of phytophagous insects distributed worldwide. Previous studies determined that density-dependent mechanisms play an important role in regulating their populations. However, only a few of those studies identified specific factors responsible for the observed regulation. Time series data used in this study originated from the untreated control plots that were a part of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) insecticide trials in northern Maine from 1971 to 2004. The data set contained information on population densities of three potato-colonizing aphid species (buckthorn aphid, Aphis nasturtii; potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae; and green peach aphid, Myzus persicae) and their natural enemies. We used path analysis to explore effects of weather and natural enemies on the intrinsic growth rates of aphid populations. Weather factors considered in our analyses contributed to the regulation of aphid populations, either directly or through natural enemies. However, direct weather effects were in most cases detectable only at P ≤ 0.10. Potato aphids were negatively affected by both fungal disease and predators, although buckthorn aphids were negatively affected by predators only. Parasitoids did not have a noticeable effect on the growth of any of the three aphid species. Growth of green peach aphid populations was negatively influenced by interspecific interactions with the other two aphid species. Differential population regulation mechanisms detected in the current study might at least partially explain coexistence of three ecologically similar aphid species sharing the same host plant.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Novaluron is a benzoylphenyl urea chitin synthesis inhibitor that combines good activity against larval stages of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), with low mammalian toxicity. Previous studies suggest that it has deleterious sublethal effects on adults.
Continuous exposure of adult Colorado potato beetles to novaluron-treated foliage as both ovipositional and feeding substrate did not affect their survivorship or the number of eggs produced, but viable larvae hatched only from the eggs that were laid on the first day of the experiment. Viability was restored after adult beetles spent 48-96 hours on untreated leaves. In a separate experiment, direct exposure to novaluron of eggs laid by unexposed beetles also reduced the number of larvae hatching.
Results confirm a negative effect of novaluron on the number of progeny produced by the Colorado potato beetle. Direct toxicity did not explain all of the reduction in egg hatch observed, suggesting that novaluron probably acted on reproductive adults as well as on eggs after they were deposited.
Pest Management Science 02/2008; 64(1):94-9. · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Scarcity of long-term (over 30years) data series represents a major challenge for an accurate estimation of the role of density-dependent processes in population regulation. We analyzed population densities of the wingless parthenogenic morphs of buckthorn aphid (BA), Aphis nasturtii Kaltenbach, potato aphid (PA), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), and green peach aphid (GPA), Myzus persicae (Sulzer) from 1949 to 2003 for signs of density-dependent regulation. We found strong evidence of density-dependent regulation, with detection of density dependence being fairly consistent among the different statistical techniques. Direct density dependence was detected for the populations of all three species. There was also evidence of delayed density dependence for PA. The periodicity of population fluctuations for BA and GPA was 6.1years and 3.9years, respectively. The periodicity for PA was not explicit, being highly variable throughout the time series. Effects of density-independent weather factors were relatively minor compared to density-dependent regulation. The BA populations experienced a significant reduction in both density and annual oscillations starting in 1995, while GPA populations experienced a similar reduction in 1991. No such change was apparent for PA. The most likely explanation for the observed phenomenon is a change in the composition of the lady beetle community following the establishment of two alien coccinellid species, and/or changes in insecticide use by commercial growers in the area of the study.
Population Ecology 11/2005; 47(3):257-266. · 1.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of recent studies indicated that establishment of exotic lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) may have adverse affects on native lady beetle species. In the present study, we analyzed changes in coccinellid community inhabiting potato crops in northern Maine over the past 31 years. Prior to 1980, lady beetle communities were comprised almost exclusively of the two native species, Coccinella transversoguttata Brown and Hippodamia tredecimpunctata(Say). Starting 1980, an exotic species Coccinella septempunctata L. became permanently established in potato crops and quickly started to dominate lady beetle community. Two other exotic species, Harmonia axyridis(Pallas) and Propylea quatordecimpunctata(L.) became prominent members of the lady beetle community in 1995 and 1996. Invasion by exotic species was followed by a significant decline in the abundance of C. transversoguttata and H. tredecimpunctata, and a significant increase in the overall diversity of lady beetle community. The abundance of aphid prey was substantially reduced after the establishment of H. axyridis. The observed trends demonstrate the profound effects that exotic natural enemies may have on target and non-target native species, and highlight the importance of their thorough evaluation before initiating biological control programs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas); green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer); and buckthorn aphid, Aphis nasturtii Kaltenbach are polyphagous herbivores that commonly colonize potato plants, Solanum tuberosum L., in the northeastern United States and Canada. Their movement influences spatial and temporal patterns of viral spread within potato fields. We investigated aphid movement between potato plants early in the season, with a particular focus on their ability to walk over bare soil. On average, aphids survived 1.16 ± 0.04 d (mean ± SE) on the surface of bare soil; all of them dying within 3 d. Wingless aphids did not leave potato plants that were adequate as a food supply. When forcibly removed from the host plant and released on the soil surface, all three species colonized the nearest plant within 1 h. However, when given no other choice, a significant proportion of aphids was fully capable of colonizing potato plants as far as 180 cm away from the point of release. Potato aphid, which is the largest, was the most mobile of the three species. The green peach aphid was intermediately mobile, and the buckthorn aphid was the least mobile species.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Imidacloprid is a commonly used insecticide that is highly effective in controlling insect pests of potato. The relatively
high cost of imidacloprid provides commercial growers with a strong incentive to reduce field application rates. In the present
study, we investigated the impact of reduced imidacloprid rates on aphid abundance and potato virus Y transmission within
potato fields. Infurrow applications of imidacloprid provided better aphid control even at a reduced rate when compared to
threshold-based foliar applications, but did not suppress the spread of the non-persistently transmitted potato virus Y. Virus
transmission was significantly decreased in foliar-sprayed plots, possibly because foliar applications incapacitated aphid
vectors probing or feeding on infected plants. Despite these generally encouraging results, we still observed 2.3 to 2.7 fold
increase in virus infection at foliar-treated plots at the end of the growing season.
American Journal of Potato Research 01/2002; 79(4):255-262. · 1.09 Impact Factor