[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The proportion of meningococcal disease in the United States, South Africa, and Israel caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup Y (NmY) was greater than the worldwide average during the period 1999-2002. Genotypic characterization of 300 NmY isolates by multilocus sequence typing, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and PorA variable region typing was conducted to determine the relationships of the isolates from these three countries. Seventy different genotypes were found. Two groups of ST-23 clonal complex isolates accounted for 88% of the U.S. isolates, 12% of the South African isolates, and 96% of the isolates from Israel. The single common clone (ST-23/16S-19/P1.5-2,10-1) represented 57, 5, and 35% of the NmY isolates from the United States, South Africa, and Israel. The predominant clone in South Africa (ST-175/16S-21/P1.5-1,2-2), and 11 other closely related clones made up 77% of the South African study isolates and were not found among the isolates from the United States or Israel. ST-175 was the predicted founder of the ST-175 clonal complex, and isolates of ST-175 and related sequence types have been described previously in other African countries. Continued active surveillance and genetic characterization of NmY isolates causing disease in the United States, South Africa, and Israel will provide valuable data for local and global epidemiology and allow monitoring for any expansion of existing clonal complexes and detection of the emergence of new virulent clones in the population.
Journal of clinical microbiology 08/2009; 47(9):2787-93. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the African meningitis belt, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W135 has emerged as a cause of epidemic disease. The establishment of W135 as the predominant cause of endemic disease has not been described.
We conducted national laboratory-based surveillance for invasive meningococcal disease during 2000-2005. The system was enhanced in 2003 to include clinical data collection of cases from sentinel sites. Isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing.
A total of 2135 cases of invasive meningococcal disease were reported, of which 1113 (52%) occurred in Gauteng Province, South Africa. In this province, rates of disease increased from 0.8 cases per 100,000 persons in 2000 to 4.0 cases per 100,000 persons in 2005; the percentage due to serogroup W135 increased from 7% (4 of 54 cases) to 75% (221 of 295 cases). The median age of patients infected with serogroup W135 was 5 years (interquartile range, 2-23 years), compared with 21 years (range, 8-26 years) for those infected with serogroup A (P<.001). The incidence of W135 disease increased in all age groups. Rates were highest among infants (age, <1 year), increasing from 5.1 cases per 100,000 persons in 2003 to 21.5 cases per 100,000 persons in 2005. Overall case-fatality rates doubled, from 11% in 2003 to 22% in 2005. Serogroup W135 was more likely to cause meningococcemia than was serogroup A (82 [28%] of 297 cases vs. 11 [8%] of 141 cases; odds ratio, 8.9, 95% confidence interval, 2.2-36.3). A total of 285 (95%) of 301 serogroup W135 isolates were identified as 1 clone by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; 7 representative strains belonged to the ST-11/ET-37 complex.
Serogroup W135 has become endemic in Gauteng, South Africa, causing disease of greater severity than did the previous predominant serogroup A strain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We characterized five Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C isolates from a Chicago outbreak of meningococcal disease that occurred in 2003 among a community of men who have sex with men. Isolates from this outbreak were identical to each other but distinct from the clone that caused a similar outbreak in Canada in 2001.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 12/2007; 45(11):3768-70. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe the epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease in South Africa from August 1999 through July 2002, as reported to a laboratory-based surveillance system. Neisseria meningitidis isolates were further characterized. In total, 854 cases of laboratory-confirmed disease were reported, with an annual incidence rate of 0.64/100,000 population. Incidence was highest in infants < 1 year of age. Serogroup B caused 41% of cases; serogroup A, 23%; serogroup Y, 21%; serogroup C, 8%; and serogroup W135, 5%. Serogroup B was the predominant serogroup in Western Cape Province, and disease rates remained stable. Serogroup A was most prevalent in Gauteng Province and increased over the 3 years. On pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis, serogroup A strains showed clonality, and serogroup B demonstrated considerable diversity. Selected isolates of serogroup A belonged to sequence type (ST)-1 (subgroup I/II) complex, serogroup B to ST-32/electrophoretic type (ET)-5 complex, and serogroup W135 to ST-11/ET-37 complex.