[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) is a common liver disease, associated with insulin resistance. Betaine has been tested as a treatment for NAFL in animal models and in small clinical trials, with mixed results. The present study aims to determine whether betaine treatment would prevent or treat NAFL in mice and to understand how betaine reverses hepatic insulin resistance. Male mice were fed a moderate high-fat diet (mHF) containing 20% of calories from fat for 7 (mHF) or 8 (mHF8) mo without betaine, with betaine (mHFB), or with betaine for the last 6 wk (mHF8B). Control mice were fed standard chow containing 9% of calories from fat for 7 mo (SF) or 8 mo (SF8). HepG2 cells were made insulin resistant and then studied with or without betaine. mHF mice had higher body weight, fasting glucose, insulin, and triglycerides and greater hepatic fat than SF mice. Betaine reduced fasting glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and hepatic fat. In the mHF8B group, betaine treatment significantly improved insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Hepatic betaine content significantly decreased in mHF and increased significantly in mHFB. Betaine treatment reversed the inhibition of hepatic insulin signaling in mHF and in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, including normalization of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) phosphorylation and of downstream signaling pathways for gluconeogenesis and glycogen synthesis. Betaine treatment prevents and treats fatty liver in a moderate high-dietary-fat model of NAFL in mice. Betaine also reverses hepatic insulin resistance in part by increasing the activation of IRS1, with resultant improvement in downstream signaling pathways.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether expression of transcription factors and lipogenic enzymes is altered in liver and adipose tissue of mice with obesity, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Mice were fed chow containing 9% of calories from standard fat (SF) or 20% of calories from high fat (HF) and killed after 9 months in the fasted or fed state.
Liver injury was evaluated by histology and serum aminotransferase levels. Transcription factor expression was measured by real-time PCR. Lipogenic enzymes were measured by real-time PCR and Western blots.
HF mice weighed more, had insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and focal pericellular hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, carbohydrate response element-binding protein, liver X receptor-alpha, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) decreased during fasting in SF and HF mice; however, FAS expression and protein content were higher in the liver of fasted HF mice than of fasted SF mice. In adipose tissue, expression of sterol response element-binding protein-1c, carbohydrate response element-binding protein, liver X receptor-alpha, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, ACC, and FAS decreased with fasting in mice fed SF, but not in HF mice. ACC and FAS expression and protein content remained higher during fasting in HF than in SF mice.
Feeding a nutritionally complete diet containing a moderate increase in fat produces obesity and steatohepatitis. During fasting, hepatic FAS expression and protein content are increased in HF mice. Transcription factor expression, and lipogenic enzyme expression and protein concentration do not decline during fasting in adipose tissue from HF mice. De-novo lipogenesis may persist in liver and adipose tissue during fasting in obesity/nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology 10/2008; 20(9):843-54. · 2.15 Impact Factor