Akihiko Ichikawa

Indore Institute of Science & Technology, Indaur, Madhya Pradesh, India

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Publications (8)1.76 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the field of life science, such as regeneration medicine or cloning, the manipulation and analysis of cells is performed by researchers. However, in micro environments, manipulating objects by hand is often not feasible or practical. We have developed a two-fingered microhand, which will help to improve operation efficiency. Using the microhand, we can manipulate cells i.e., grab, rotate, carry, and so on - like when using chop sticks. The stiffness measurement of a cell is a key approach in single cell analysis techniques. It is important in indicating cell condition, because the stiffness of a cancer cell is lower than that of a normal cell as an example. In this paper, the pressure force caused in the process of cell deformation is measured via a micro force sensor attached to the root of micro glass needle. Our results point out that this can be one efficient measurement method for acquiring cell stiffness. The micro force sensor uses strain gauges to measure the strain of the glass needle so that we can find out the force generated on the micro force sensor indirectly. In this paper, two topics are discussed. One is for converting strain data to force data based on the force sensor model. The other refers to the experimental results about the stiffness measurement of the oocyte.
    Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO), 2010 IEEE International Conference on; 01/2011
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    ABSTRACT: In the field of bioscience, such as regeneration medicine and cloning, the manipulation and analysis for cells are performed by many researchers. However, manual oper- ation for such micro objects is not feasible and practical for beginner operators. As for the problem, we have developed a two-fingered microhand supporting manual operation. Using the microhand, we can manipulate cells i.e., grab, rotate, carry, and so on - like when using chop sticks. The stiffness measurement of a cell is a key approach in single cell analysis techniques. It is important in indicating cell condition, because the stiffness of a cancer cell is lower than that of a normal cell as an example. However, measuring stiffness is very difficult, because deformations of cell are plasticly, and many researches to measure the stiffness of cell don't deal with plastic deformation. So, in this paper, the cell hardness is calculated instead of cell stiffness by measuring the reaction force caused in the process of cell deformation via a micro force sensor attached to the end-effector of the microhand. Our results point out that this can be one efficient measurement method for acquiring cell hardness. In this paper, three topics are discussed. First one is the fabrication of the end-effector with micro force sensor. Second one is the method of measuring hardness of cell. As a last one, the hardness of the fibroblastic cell is measured by proposed method and the effectiveness of the proposal technique is shown.
    2011 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS 2011, San Francisco, CA, USA, September 25-30, 2011; 01/2011
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    ABSTRACT: We develop an automated cell-cutting technique for cell cloning. Animal cells softened by the cytochalasin treatment are injected into a microfluidic chip. The microfluidic chip contains two orthogonal channels: one microchannel is wide, used to transport cells, and generates the cutting flow; the other is thin and used for aspiration, fixing, and stretching of the cell. The injected cell is aspirated and stretched in the thin microchannel. Simultaneously, the volumes of the cell before and after aspiration are calculated; the volumes are used to calculate the fluid flow required to aspirate half the volume of the cell into the thin microchannel. Finally, we apply a high-speed flow in the orthogonal microchannel to bisect the cell. This paper reports the cutting process, the cutting system, and the results of the experiment.
    SICE Journal of Control, Measurement, and System Integration. 01/2011; 3(2):75-80.
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    ABSTRACT: We fabricated a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microwell plate (PDMS-MP) containing 100 microwells with a rounded bottom and examined whether it can be used for culture of individual in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos or parthenogenetically activated zona-free embryos in cattle. In Experiment 1, we examined the in vitro developmental ability of IVF embryos cultured individually on PDMS-MP. After IVF, 20 embryos were transferred into 100 microl drops on PDMS-MP and cultured individually in each well of PDMS-MP (PDMS group). After 7 days of culture, the embryos in the PDMS group developed to the blastocyst stage at the same rate of those in the control group cultured in a group of 20 embryos without PDMS-MP. There were no differences in total number of cells and the ratio of inner cell mass to total cells between the PDMS and control groups. In Experiment 2, we examined the in vitro developmental ability of parthenogenetically activated zona-free bovine embryos cultured individually on PDMS-MP. The zona-free embryos were cultured individually in each well of a PDMS-MP or in each well produced by pressing a darning needle onto the bottom of a culture dish (WOW group). After 7 days of culture, the blastocyst formation rate and cell number of blastocysts in the PDMS group did not differ from those of the zona-intact embryos in the control group. Also, there were no differences in the blastocyst formation rate and cell number of blastocysts between the WOW and PDMS groups. These results suggest that the culture system using PDMS-MP is useful for individual embryos or zona-free embryos in cattle.
    Journal of Reproduction and Development 08/2010; 56(4):475-9. · 1.76 Impact Factor
  • A. Ichikawa, T. Tanikawa, S. Akagi, K. Ohba
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed an automated cell cutting and its nucleus detection technique for automated nucleus transplantation. Animal cells softened by cytochalasin treatment were injected into a microfluidic chip. The microfluidic chip contained 2 orthogonal channels: 1 microchannel was wide, was used to transport cells, and to generate the cutting flow; the other microchannel was thin and used for aspiration, fixing, and stretching of the cell. The injected cell was aspirated and stretched thin into the thin microchannel. Simultaneously, the volume of the cell before and after aspiration was calculated; this volume was used to calculate the fluid flow required to aspirate half the volume of the cell into the thin microchannel. Then, we applied a high-speed flow in the orthogonal microchannel to bisect the cell. Finally, we observed the nucleus of the cut cells to detect the non-nucleus cell. This paper reports the cutting and the detection process and the system, and result of the experiment.
    Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO), 2009 IEEE International Conference on; 01/2010
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed a novel technique for fluorescent monitoring of a bovine oocyte nucleus for an automatic cloning device. Animal cells that have been chemically softened by cytochalasin and stained with Hoechst dye are aspirated into a thin microchannel of a microfluidic chip and stretched thin, allowing the nucleus of the expanded oocyte to be monitored. Half the volume of the oocyte is aspirated into the thin microchannel and a high-velocity fluid flow is generated in the wide microchannel to bisect the oocyte. Then, the half-oocytes are monitored to determine which contains the nucleus. To control flow velocity with high accuracy and rapid response, we also developed a syringe pump that is small, has no backlash, and has highly-accurate volume control and a good response for automatic cutting. In this report, we describe the monitoring method and construction of the syringe pump.
    Robotics and Automation, 2009. ICRA '09. IEEE International Conference on; 06/2009
  • A. Ichikawa, T. Tanikawa, K. Ohba
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of our research work is to develop a multifunctional piezoelectric actuation mechanism for micro-manipulator using 3 degree of freedom actuation plate and expansion plate which its expansion rate and its character frequency can be adjusted by the number of the laminated hinge mechanism. It is important to downsizing of actuation mechanism along with the miniaturization of electronic circuit devices, moreover the making to high accuracy and integration of the actuator are also needed. The expansion mechanism is made by thin metal plates which have hinge mechanism. The expansion rate can be controlled by the number of the expansion plates. The expansion mechanism is small and useful to make micro-manipulator which can be set up on a microscope stage. This report shows a principle of the hinge mechanism, systems of micro-manipulator and result of the manipulation experiment.
    01/2009;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have developed a novel technique for injecting and cutting animal cells for an automatic cloning system. Animal cells that have been chemically softened are aspirated into a narrow teflon tube, which is then inserted into a microfluidic chip. The tube's tip is inserted into a microchannel and releases the aspirated cells in the microchannel. The microfluidic chip contains two orthogonal channels. One is a narrow microchannel that aspirates and fixes a cell; in the other channel, a fluid flows at high velocity for cutting the aspirated cell. The thickness of the aspiration channel can be adjusted to fix the aspirated cell. Half the volume of the cell is aspirated into the narrow microchannel and high-speed flow is then generated to cut the cell into two. In this report, the cutting method and the injection method are described. Then an imaging process is also investigated for an automatic cutting.
    2008 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, ICRA 2008, May 19-23, 2008, Pasadena, California, USA; 01/2008