Fred Harwood

University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California, United States

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Publications (5)6.98 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Biglycan, a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, has been shown to interact with extracellular matrix (ECM) collagen and may influence fibrillogenesis. We hypothesized that biglycan contributes to post-myocardial infarction (MI) scar development and that the absence of biglycan would result in altered scar structure and mechanics. Anterior MI was induced in biglycan hemizygous null and wild-type mice by permanent ligation of the left coronary artery. The initial extent of ischemic injury was similar in the two groups, as was the infarct size after 30 days, although there was some tendency toward reduced expansion in the biglycan-null. Electron microscopy revealed that collagen fibrils had a smaller average diameter and a narrower range in the biglycan-null scar, as well as appearing more densely packed. In vivo strain analysis showed that biglycan-null scars were stiffer than the wild-type. Remote LV collagen concentration tended to be reduced in biglycan-null hearts, but the difference was not statistically significant. Null-expression of biglycan may alter collagen fibril ultrastructure, and thereby influence scar mechanics and remodeling.
    Molecular & cellular biomechanics: MCB 03/2008; 5(1):27-35.
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    ABSTRACT: Growth factor delivery may be useful to accelerate the rate of tendon healing. Before in vivo use, however, the effects of growth factors on tendon cells need to be well characterized. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 4 growth factors on intrasynovial tendon fibroblast proliferation and collagen production in vitro. Our first hypothesis was that platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) would promote cell proliferation and collagen production. Our second hypothesis was that there would be a positive effect from the combination of PDGF-BB and bFGF. The growth factors PDGF-BB, bFGF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) were evaluated in vitro with canine flexor tendon fibroblasts. The effects of single factors (PDGF-BB, bFGF, VEGF, or BMP-2) or a combination of factors (PDGF-BB and bFGF) on cell proliferation (ie, thymidine incorporation) and collagen production (ie, proline incorporation) were evaluated. The results supported our hypotheses. Cell proliferation increased significantly with PDGF-BB and bFGF. Collagen production also increased significantly with PDGF-BB and bFGF. Cell proliferation and collagen production were unchanged with VEGF and BMP-2. A dose-response effect was seen for PDGF-BB combined with bFGF. The combination of PDGF-BB and bFGF led to an increase in cell proliferation but no change in collagen production compared with each factor alone. The growth factors PDGF-BB and bFGF significantly increased flexor tendon fibroblast proliferation and matrix synthesis when applied singly. Administration of PDGF-BB and bFGF combined led to increased proliferation to single factors.
    The Journal Of Hand Surgery 06/2005; 30(3):441-7. · 1.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate rates of cellular proliferation and matrix turnover in autogenous flexor tendon grafts, hindlimb intrasynovial (flexor digitorum profundus) and extrasynovial (peroneus longus) tendons were placed within the synovial sheaths of the medial and lateral forepaw digits of 18 dogs and treated with controlled early passive motion. After the dogs had been killed, short-term culture and labeling in vitro were utilized to determine rates of DNA, proteoglycan, collagen, and noncollagen protein synthesis. Schiff base covalent collagen crosslink concentrations and total collagen and protein content also were evaluated at intervals through 6 weeks. Tendon grafts of extrasynovial origin showed greater rates of DNA synthesis and significantly elevated levels of proteoglycan, collagen, and noncollagen protein synthesis and Schiff base covalent collagen crosslink concentrations (dihydroxylysinonorleucine) compared with intrasynovial tendon grafts. It was not clear to what extent the increased activity in the extrasynovial graft was due to actual differences between the intrasynovial and extrasynovial tendons or to the responses of the connective tissue surrounding the extrasynovial tendon graft. Since both types of grafts demonstrated similar unaltered levels of collagen and protein content over time, these data suggest greater rates of matrix turnover in tendon grafts of extrasynovial origin than in those of intrasynovial origin. Coupled with previous findings showing increased cellular proliferation in extrasynovial tendon grafts, these data indicate that the process of translation to an intrasynovial environment necessitates a more active process of soft-tissue repair and remodeling when extrasynovial donor tendons are used.
    Journal of Orthopaedic Research 02/2005; 13(1):58 - 66. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In vivo animal studies have indicated that the complex structure of the tendon-bone interface may not be restored after repair even under optimal conditions. Controversy exists about the histologic findings in the early postoperative period after tendon reattachment to bone; this may have impact on biomechanical properties. The objective was to study the histologic structure and immunohistochemical staining of the tendon-bone interface in a large model of digital flexor tendon-bone repair. The hypothesis was that the tendon-bone interface matures and assumes a progressively more anatomic histologic and immunohistochemical appearance during the first 6 weeks after repair. Twenty-four canine flexor digitorum profundus tendons were released from their insertion by sharp dissection and repaired to bone. The forelimb was immobilized after surgery and 10 minutes of daily passive motion rehabilitation was performed. Dogs were killed at 10, 21, and 42 days after surgery. Hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical staining for types I, II, and II collagen were performed. Although at both 10 and 21 days after surgery substantial inflammation was seen at the tendon-bone repair site, this had decreased markedly by 42 days. Although direct apposition of tendon to bone was seen at 42 days, the mature tendon-bone insertion site was not recreated by this time. Staining for types I and III collagen was diffuse throughout the tendon-bone insertion throughout the interval examined. These findings suggest that at 6 weeks after surgery the intact tendon-bone repair site shows minimal histologic and molecular similarity when compared with unoperated specimens.
    The Journal Of Hand Surgery 06/2003; 28(3):469-74. · 1.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study assessed a fresh medial meniscal allograft transplantation model in the rabbit knee. Biological characterization included assessment of collagen remodeling of the allograft and the potential protection against cartilage degeneration. Allograft transplantation was performed on the left knee, and total meniscectomy on the right knee. Forty-seven rabbits were operated on and assessed at 9, 12, and 26 weeks. Fresh medial meniscal allografts showed collagen remodeling that paralleled the revascularization and cellular proliferation of the allografts. Revascularization was shown as early as 9 weeks from the periphery, extending to the inner one-third of the allograft by 26 weeks. Viability assessment of the meniscal allograft cells showed live cells at the periphery of the allograft at 9 and 12 weeks. At time 0, i.e., the time of the transplant, few viable cells were observed within the donor tissues. Biochemically, collagen remodeling, in terms of increased reducible collagen crosslinks, i.e., dihydroxylysinonorleucine, and the percentage of collagen present, was seen throughout the 26-week observation period. At 26 weeks, the meniscal allografts inhibited degenerative changes of the femoral and tibial cartialage compared to results with total meniscectomy.
    Journal of Orthopaedic Science 05/1997; 2(3):171-179. · 0.96 Impact Factor