[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity has become an epidemic problem, contributing to metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. An adequate blood pressure control in this population of obese individuals is extremely difficult to achieve, and in most cases, therapeutic combinations are required. Pharmacologic treatment with moxonidine, a central I(1) imidazole receptor agonist, is a very interesting option because it acts upon the mechanisms implicated in the development of arterial hypertension in these patients. In addition, the drug improves the peripheral insulin resistance often found in obese patents, which contributes to maintain high blood pressure.
An interventional study has been designed, adding moxonidine to noncontrolled hypertensive, obese subjects in whom a hypocaloric diet was previously recommended. A total of 25 primary care centers participated in the study, with a total of 135 patients recruited.
One hundred twelve patients were included in the study; 25 of them had type 2 diabetes. The mean reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure after 6 months treatment with moxonidine was 23.0 and 12.9 mm Hg, respectively. The mean systolic and diastolic pressures were 158.5 +/- 10.6 and 95.1 +/- 9 mm Hg, respectively, at baseline, versus 135.5 +/- 11.6 and 82.2 +/- 5.8 mm Hg at the end of the study. Creatinine clearance was significantly decreased in hyperfiltrating obese patients (143.6 +/- 31 vs. 128.2 +/- 27.9, P < 0.0001), without any significant change in patients with normal or slightly decreased renal function (81.9 +/- 18.9 vs. 80.9 +/- 17.5). Only 8 mild adverse reactions in 7 patients were recorded during the study.
Moxonidine is useful and safe for controlling arterial hypertension in obese patients.