[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to monitor residual pesticides in domestic agricultural products and to assess their risk to human health. METHODS AND RESULTS: 123 samples containing both general and environment-friendly certified agricultural products were purchased from traditional domestic markets and supermarkets in six provinces of Korea. Multiresidue analyses of one hundred twenty-two pesticides except for herbicides were performed with gas chromatography-electron capture detector, gas chromatography-nitrogen/phosphorus detector, and high-performance liquid chromatography. Sixteen pesticides were detected in 45 agricultural product samples, which were 38 general, 6 low pesticide and 1 of GAP agricultural product samples and the detection rate was 33.6%. Pesticides detected in agricultural product samples were cypermethrin, lufenuron, fenvalerate, bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr and iprodione. Residual concentration of 18 samples were exceeded the recommended maximum residue limit set by Ministry of Food and Drug Safety and two kinds of unregistered pesticides in korea were also detected in two samples. CONCLUSION(S): In order to do risk assessment by agricultural products consumption, estimated daily intake of residual pesticides were determined and compared to acceptable daily intake, referring to %ADI values. The range of %ADI values was from 0.038% to 2.748%. Taken together, it demonstrates the pesticides found in agricultural products samples were below the safety margin, indicating no effect on human health.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adult human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) are a unique population of precursor cells those are isolated from postnatal dental pulp and have the ability to differentiate into a variety of cell types utilized for the formation of a reparative dentin-like complex. Using LC-MS/MS proteomics approaches, we identified the proteins secreted from the differentiating hDPSCs in mineralization media. Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) was identified as a protein that was down-regulated in the hDPSCs that differentiate into odontoblast-like cells. The role of LOXL2 has not been studied in dental pulp stem cells. LOXL2 mRNA levels were reduced in differentiating hDPSCs, whereas the levels of other LOX family members including LOX, LOXL1, LOXL3, and LOXL4, are increased. The protein expression and secretion levels of LOXL2 were also decreased during odontogenic differentiation. Recombinant LOXL2 protein treatment to hDPSCs resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the early differentiation and the mineralization accompanying with the lower levels of odontogenic markers such as DSPP, DMP-1 and ALP. These results suggest that LOXL2 has a negative effect on the differentiation of hDPSCs and blocking LOXL2 can promote the hDPSC differentiation to odontoblasts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to monitor residual pesticides in ginseng and balloon flower roots and to assess their risk to human health. All of 112 samples consisted of ginseng and balloon roots were purchased from traditional domestic markets and supermarkets in nine provinces of Korea in 2012. Multi-residue analysis of 122 pesticides was conducted and the analysis was performed by gas chromatography-electron capture detector, gas chromatography- nitrogen/phosphorus detector, and high-performance liquid chromatography. Seven pesticides were detected in 12 root samples and the detection rate was 10.7%. The detected twelve root samples were 10 ginseng root samples and 2 balloon root samples. Pesticides detected in root samples were procymidone, kresoxim-methyl, endosulfan, cypermethrin, tralomethrin, tetraconazole and chlorfluazuron. Among them, two pesticides as tetraconazole in a balloon flower root and cypermethrin in a ginseng root exceeded the recommended maximum residue limit set by Korea Food and Drug Administration. Five pesticides detected from 10 root samples were identified as unregistered pesticides in Korea. In order to do risk assessment with Korean medicinal plant consumption, estimated daily intake of residual pesticides were determined and compared to acceptable daily intake, referring to %ADI values. The range of %ADI values was from 0.006% to 0.333%. Taken together, it demonstrates the pesticides found in the two root samples were below the safety margin, indicating no effect on human health.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This research has investigated the residue patterns of insecticide flubendiamide on three species of peaches with different surface forms, and the residue amounts of them when mixed with a spreader. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pesticide used for field application on peaches was 20% flubendiamide of suspension concentrate(SC) and was sprayed at a recommended rate. The residue amounts of flubendiamide in peach were analyzed by HPLC equipped with UV detector. After the observation with a microscope, the rank of fuzz amount on peach's surface was Kurakatawase, Wolmi in descending order and Cheonhong did not have any fuzz. The residue amounts of flubendiamide were 0.54 mg/kg for Kurakatawase, 0.43 mg/kg for Wolmi and 0.10 mg/kg for Cheonhong, respectively. When flubendiamide was used with a spreader, polyoxy ethylene methylpoly siloxane, the residue amount for Kurakatawase barely changed at 0.55 mg/kg regardless of mixing with a spreader, and at 0.53 mg/kg for Wolmi. In Cheonhong, the residue amount was 0.48 mg/kg, which increased by 4.8 times due to the use of a spreader. CONCLUSION: This result indicates that the residue amounts of flubendiamde were affected by the surface forms of peaches, and in the presence of a spreader the residue amount did not increase in fuzzy species, but was affected greatly for species without fuzz.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The differentiation of odontoblasts is initiated by the organization of differentiating ameloblasts during tooth formation. However, the exact roles of ameloblast-derived factors in odontoblast differentiation have not yet been characterized. We investigated the effects of preameloblast-conditioned medium (PA-CM) on the odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we analyzed the PA-CM by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify novel factors that facilitate odontoblast differentiation. In the co-culture of MDPC-23 cells or hDPSCs with mouse apical bud cells (ABCs), ABCs promoted differentiation of odontoblastic MDPC-23 cells and facilitated odontoblast differentiation of hDPSCs. PA-CM, CM from ABCs after 3 days culture, was most effective in increasing the dentin sialophosphoprotein promoter activity of odontoblastic MDPC-23 cells. When PA-CM-treated hDPSCs were transplanted into immunocompromised mice, they generated pulp-like structures lined with human odontoblast-like cells showing typical odontoblast processes. However, during recombinant human bone morphogenenetic protein 2-treated hDPSCs transplantation, some of the cells were entrapped in mineralized matrix possessing osteocyte characteristics. After proteomic analyses, we identified 113 types of proteins in PA-CM, of which we characterized 23. The results show that preameloblast-derived factors induce the odontogenic differentiation of hDPSCs and promote dentin formation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human adult dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) are a unique precursor population isolated from postnatal dental pulp and have the ability to regenerate a reparative dentin-like complex. In this study, we investigated the role of Asporin in hDPSCs, which was identified as a matrix protein in our previous dentin proteomic analysis. We isolated a clonogenic, highly proliferative population of cells from adult human dental pulp. These isolated hDPSCs were confirmed by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) using stem cell-specific markers and have shown multilineage differentiation potential. The localization of Asporin was identified by immunohistochemistry in the globular calcification region in the junction of predentin and dentin. The gene and protein expression levels of Asporin were enhanced at the early stage of and then reduced during the late stage of differentiation of hDPSCs in mineralization media. ASPN knock-down using a lentiviral system suppressed the mineralization of hDPSCs. These results suggest that ASPN plays positive roles in the mineralization of hDPSCs and predentin to dentin.