[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a dominant disorder due to mutations in the LDLR gene. Several mutations in the LDLR promoter are associated with FH. Screening of 3,705 Spanish FH patients identified 10 variants in the promoter and 5' UTR. Here, we analyse the functionality of six newly identified LDLR variants. Mutations located in the LDLR promoter regulatory elements R2 and R3 (c.-155_-150delACCCCinsTTCTGCAAACTCCTCCC, c.-136C>G, c.-140C>G, and c.-140C>T) resulted in 6 to 15% residual activity in reporter expression experiments and changes in nuclear protein binding affinity compared to wild type. No reduction was observed when cells were transfected with c.-208T, c.-88A, and c.-36G mutant fragments. Our results indicate that mutations localized in R2 and R3 are associated with hypercholesterolemia, whereas mutations outside the LDLR response elements are not a cause of FH. This data emphasizes the importance of functional analysis of variants in the LDLR promoter to determine their association with the FH phenotype.
Human Mutation 08/2011; 32(8):868-72. DOI:10.1002/humu.21520 · 5.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IntroductionFamilial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disorder mainly caused by mutations in the coding region of the LDLR gene. However, a variety of mutations within the LDLR promoter have been associated with FH. Genetic screening in persons clinically diagnosed with HF revealed the presence of four new heterozygous mutations within the promoter region.
Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis 05/2011; 23(3):119-124. DOI:10.1016/j.arteri.2011.04.001
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant hypercholesterolaemia (ADH) are a heterogeneous group of monogenic lipid disorders. The plasma level of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is a heritable trait associated with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) risk.
To evaluate the frequency of elevated Lp(a) as a cause of ADH and the characteristics of subjects with high Lp(a) (hyperLp(a)).
200 healthy subjects and 933 unrelated Spanish subjects with a clinical diagnosis of ADH who were screened for low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and apolipoprotein B (APOB) gene mutations. Standard cardiovascular risk factors and blood lipid levels, including Lp(a), were evaluated. HyperLp(a) was defined as Lp(a) levels >or=95th centile of control values.
Lp(a) was higher in 263 subjects without LDLR or APOB mutations (nonLDLR/nonAPOB group) than in 670 subjects with mutations (FH group): 40.0 mg/dl (interquartile range (IR) 15.0-89.0) versus 31.0 mg/dl (IR 11.0-73.7) respectively, p = 0.002. HyperLp(a) was present in 23% of ADH subjects (odds ratio (OR) 5.6 (95% CI, 2.9 to 10.7) versus controls) and 29% of nonLDLR/nonAPOB subjects (OR 7.7; 3.9 to 15.4). After adjusting for Lp(a), LDL cholesterol levels were <95th centile in 28 (10.6%) nonLDLR/nonAPOB subjects and in 9 (1.3%) FH subjects. Lp(a) levels were nonsignificantly higher in ADH subjects with early-onset CHD than in those without (43.5 mg/dl, (IR, 12.0-82.0) versus 31.7 mg/dl (11.8-76.5), respectively).
HyperLp(a) is responsible for ADH in approximately 6% of nonLDLR/nonAPOB subjects. HyperLp(a) would not appear to be a risk factor for early-onset CHD in ADH, independently of whether genetic defects have or have not been demonstrated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monogenic hypercholesterolemia is a group of lipid disorders, most of which have autosomal dominant transmission. Familial defective apoB (FDB) resulting from mutations in the APOB gene is a well-recognized cause of autosomal dominant monogenic hypercholesterolemia (ADMH). However, the frequency of FDB among patients with ADMH is not well established. The aim of our research was to screen for mutations responsible for FDB in subjects with a clinical diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia. We studied 408 patients from the Spanish Register of Familial Hypercholesterolemia, proportionally distributed among all Spanish regions. Abnormal SSCP patterns of the APOB gene were checked by DNA sequencing and restriction analysis. Three out of the 408 patients were carriers of the R3500Q mutation, and 2 subjects were carriers of the silent T3552T mutation; in both of these patients functional mutations in the LDL receptor gene were found. We conclude that FDB is not a common cause of ADMH in Spain; the R3500Q mutation is the only mutation in APOB causing FDB, and the LDL receptor binding domain of APOB is highly conserved in the studied sample.
Human Biology 11/2005; 77(5):663-73. DOI:10.1353/hub.2006.0005 · 0.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serotonin is a neurotransmitter synthesized from tryptophan. It is implied in the regulation of mood, cognition, sleep cycle, synthesis of cerebrospinal fluid, and other processes. Generally, it is implied in human pathology by hypofunction. However, there is a complication of unknown incidence related to treatment with drugs that increase the stimulation of 5-HT1A serotonin receptors, called serotonin syndrome (SS). Clinically, it is characterised by the presence of a triad of mental and autonomic disorders, and motor hyperactivity. This entity has not biological markers and its diagnosis could be done verifying the proposed criteria.
Two cases of SS are presented, one of them related to the combination of risperidone and sertraline, as first report in the literature. Both cases had a favourable outcome employing support measures.
The physiopathology, the diagnosis, the differential diagnosis, and the treatment are reviewed. We emphasize the potentially high frequency of this disorder, given the growing use of serotonin activity modifying drugs, and the typically benign course of the SS once the support measures are started.
Revista de neurologia 02/2005; 40(3):159-62. · 0.83 Impact Factor