ABSTRACT: While the effects of bisphosphonates on bone-resorbing osteoclasts have been well documented, the effects of bisphosphonates on other cell types are not as well studied. Recently, we reported that bisphosphonates have direct effects on bone-forming human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB). In this report, the role of the mevalonate pathway in the actions of bisphosphonates on hFOB, and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells was examined. These studies included a novel bisphosphonate analog, the anhydride formed between arabinocytidine 5' phosphate and etidronate (Ara-CBP). Ara-CBP was the most potent inhibitor of hFOB and MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation, and stimulator of hFOB cell mineralization compared to etidronate, the anhydride formed between AMP and etidronate (ABP), pamidronate, and zoledronate. Inhibition of hFOB cell proliferation by Ara-CBP and zoledronate was partially reversed by mevalonate pathway intermediates, and stimulation of hFOB cell mineralization was completely reversed by mevalonate pathway intermediates. These results suggest that zoledronate and Ara-CBP act, at least in part, via inhibition of the mevalonate pathway in hFOB cells. In contrast, none of the mevalonate pathway intermediates reversed the inhibition of MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation by the bisphosphonates, or the effects of pamidronate on hFOB cells. As a positive control, the effects of mevastatin on hFOB and MDA-MB-231 cells were completely reversed by mevalonate. In summary, these data suggest that zoledronate and Ara-CBP induce human osteoblast differentiation via inhibition of the mevalonate pathway. In contrast, the inhibition of MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation by the bisphosphonates appears to be through mechanisms other than inhibition of the mevalonate pathway.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 03/2002; 71(3):257-68. · 4.43 Impact Factor