ABSTRACT: Nonpolar organic chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorobenzenes are expected to act additively when exposed as a mixture. The present study examined the toxicity of fluoranthene (FLU) and pentachlorobenzene (PCBz) individually and in a binary mixture using the whole-body residue as the dose metric. Body residues were based on the toxic equivalent body residue, which included the parent compound plus the organically extractable metabolites for FLU and the parent compound only for PCBz. Using a toxic unit (TU) approach, the binary mixtures of FLU and PCBz following 4- and 10-d water-only exposures acted additively. The lethal residue (LR50) values for mixtures of the compounds for Hyalella azteca were 1.26 (1.19-1.33) TU and 1.27 (1.20-1.34) TU for 4- and 10-d exposures, respectively. For Chironomus dilutus, the 4-d and 10-d values were 0.93 (0.90-0.97) TU and 1.01 (0.96-1.06) TU. Additionally, the total molar sum of PCBz and FLU whole-body residues in a mixture were compared to residues from single compound exposures. For both species tested, the LR50 values based on the total molar sum fell within the range of those determined from the single compound tests; providing additional support for molar additivity for nonpolar narcotic compounds. Assuming that residue-effects data among narcotic compounds (e.g., LR50) are similar, applying the molar sum methodology to narcotic compounds in tissues determined from routine biomonitoring programs and risk specific sampling may be a valuable tool to assess potential effects to biota in the field.
Chemosphere 09/2009; 77(3):399-403. · 3.21 Impact Factor