[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SAMP1/YitFcs mice serve as a model of Crohn's disease, and we have used them to assess gastritis. Gastritis was compared in SAMP1/YitFcs, AKR, and C57BL/6 mice by histology, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry. Gastric acid secretion was measured in ligated stomachs, while anti-parietal cell antibodies were assayed by immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay. SAMP1/YitFcs mice display a corpus-dominant, chronic gastritis with multifocal aggregates of mononuclear cells consisting of T and B lymphocytes. Relatively few aggregates were observed elsewhere in the stomach. The infiltrates in the oxyntic mucosa were associated with the loss of parietal cell mass. AKR mice, the founder strain of the SAMP1/YitFcs, also have gastritis, although they do not develop ileitis. Genetic studies using SAMP1/YitFcs-C57BL/6 congenic mice showed that the genetic regions regulating ileitis had comparable effects on gastritis. The majority of the cells in the aggregates expressed the T cell marker CD3 or the B cell marker B220. Adoptive transfer of SAMP1/YitFcs CD4(+) T helper cells, with or without B cells, into immunodeficient recipients induced a pangastritis and duodenitis. SAMP1/YitFcs and AKR mice manifest hypochlorhydria and anti-parietal cell antibodies. These data suggest that common genetic factors controlling gastroenteric disease in SAMP1/YitFcs mice regulate distinct pathogenic mechanisms causing inflammation in separate sites within the digestive tract.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gut which manifests as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. One of the most studied animal models of spontaneous Crohn's disease is the senescence-accelerated mouse (SAMP1/Yit strain) model. In SAMP1/Yit mice, although many immunological responses are perturbed, some evidence suggests that the primary defect lies in the epithelial cell barrier. In the process of studying epithelial permeability, we observed that the stomach in SAMP1/Yit mice also had increased permeability. Upon further examination, these mice were shown to have marked, chronic gastritis with focal to diffuse aggregates of mononuclear cells of mixed lineages. These aggregates were located predominantly in the oxyntic mucosa, with occasional lesions in the forestomach but with relatively fewer cellular infiltrates in the antral mucosa. Real-time RT PCR showed an increase in several helper T cell (Th cell)-derived pro-inflammatory cytokines in the gastric mucosa of SAMP1/Yit mice. However, many of the cells in the aggregates of SAMP1/Yit mice were B cells. SAMP1/Yit B cells exacerbate ileitis when co-transferred into immunodeficient recipients. The gastritis also reflects a contribution by B cells. As SAMP1/Yit mice were derived from AKR mice, we examined AKR mice and determined that they too have an increased occurrence of gastritis, although they do not develop ileitis. B cells contributed to the gastric inflammation in these mice also. Thus, SAMP1/Yit mice display gastritis as well as ileitis, and B cells appear to play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammation at both sites. This review will discuss some of the mechanisms that may account for these different manifestations of gastrointestinal disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori causes a lifelong infection and provides a model of bacterial adaptation and persistent colonization. Adenosine is an anti-inflammatory mediator that limits tissue damage during inflammation. We studied the role of adenosine in the T-cell-mediated regulation of gastritis and bacterial persistence. After 4 h of activation, human T helper (Th) cells increased A(2A) adenosine receptor (A(2A)AR) mRNA level (sevenfold). A(2A)AR was the predominant subtype expressed in resting and stimulated gastric or peripheral Th cells. Stimulation with ATL313, an A(2A)AR agonist, increased cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation and reduced interleukin-2 (IL-2) production by 20-50%. ATL313 also attenuated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production, which was inhibited by an A(2A)AR antagonist. Infection of IL-10-deficient mice with H. pylori is cleared spontaneously due to the marked inflammation. Administration of ATL313 during infection reduced gastritis and pro-inflammatory cytokine responses while bacterial load increased. In contrast, infection of A(2A)AR-deficient mice enhanced gastritis. Thus, A(2A)AR limits the pro-inflammatory effects of Th cells and favor chronic Helicobacter infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regulatory T cells (known as "Treg") express apyrases (CD39) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) and contribute to their inhibitory function by generating adenosine. We investigated the expression of CD39 and CD73 on human T helper (Th) cells and the role of CD73 in regulating Helicobacter felis-induced gastritis and colonization.
Human CD4+ Th cells, gastric T cells, or Treg subsets were stimulated and assayed for the expression of CD39 and CD73 by means of reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry. The effect of CD73 on proliferation and cytokine production was assessed, and the presence of gastritis, proinflammatory cytokine expression, or colonization of H. felis was evaluated in CD73-deficient (CD73-/-) mice or recipient mice given control or CD73-/- Treg.
CD4+ T cells expressed CD39 and CD73, particularly in CD25+Foxp3+ Treg from peripheral blood or gastric mucosa. Activation significantly increased CD73 expression on all Th cells. Inhibition of CD73 enhanced production of interferon-gamma. Gastritis in H. felis-infected CD73-/- mice was significantly worse than that in wild-type mice and was accompanied by increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and reduced bacterial colonization, whereas Treg from CD73-/- mice did not inhibit gastritis.
CD39 and CD73 expressed by Th cells contribute to local accumulation of adenosine and attenuation of gastritis, which may favor persistent infection.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 03/2009; 199(4):494-504. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A(2A) adenosine receptors (A(2A)AR) inhibit inflammation, although the mechanisms through which adenosine exerts its effects remain unclear. Although the transfer of regulatory Th cells blocks colitis induced by pathogenic CD45RB(high) Th cells, we show that CD45RB(low) or CD25+ Th cells from A(2A)AR-deficient mice do not prevent disease. Moreover, CD45RB(high) Th cells from A(2A)AR-deficient mice were not suppressed by control CD45RB(low) Th cells. A(2A)AR agonists suppressed the production of proinflammatory cytokines by CD45RB(high) and CD45RB(low) T cells in association with a loss of mRNA stability. In contrast, anti-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-10 and TGF-beta, were minimally affected. Oral administration of the A(2A)AR agonist ATL313 attenuated disease in mice receiving CD45RB(high) Th cells. These data suggest that A(2A)AR play a novel role in the control of T cell-mediated colitis by suppressing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines while sparing anti-inflammatory activity mediated by IL-10 and TGF-beta.
The Journal of Immunology 10/2006; 177(5):2765-9. · 5.52 Impact Factor