Elisabeth Hazard

Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York City, NY, United States

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Publications (9)21.78 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists are commonly used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Differences in the dosage and mode of administration of these agents may result in differential rates of dosage adjustment and costs of care. This study compared dosing patterns and annual costs associated with the use of the subcutaneous TNF antagonists adalimumab and etanercept, and the intravenous TNF antagonist infliximab. A large managed care database (PharMetrics) was used to identify patients with RA who newly initiated TNF-antagonist therapy with adalimumab, etanercept, or infliximab on or after January 1, 2003, and had at least 6 months of continuous health plan enrollment before initiation of therapy and 12 months of continuous enrollment after initiation. The patients were followed over 12 months of enrollment. Annual pharmacy, inpatient, and outpatient costs were estimated based on plan reimbursements and were compared between cohorts. The average daily dosage (ADD) between prescription refills was used to compare the percentages of patients with greater-than-expected dosing (GTED), defined as 2 consecutive increases in ADD relative to the patient's established maintenance dosage. A total of 2382 patients (568 adalimumab, 1181 etanercept, 633 infliximab) were included in the analysis. Significantly more patients had GTED with infliximab compared with adalimumab and etanercept (32.1%, 8.5%, and 4.7%, respectively; both comparisons, P < 0.05). For patients with a dosage increase, the mean time to the first GTED was significantly shorter for infliximab compared with adalimu-mab and etanercept (154.5, 173.3, and 167.9 days; both, P < 0.05). The mean annual costs of anti-TNF therapy, adjusted for baseline differences, were significantly greater for infliximab compared with adalimumab and etanercept ($15,617, $12,200, and $12,146; both, P < 0.05). There were also significant differences between infliximab relative to adalimumab and etanercept in total RA-related medication costs ($16,280, $12,989, and $12,794; P < 0.05) and total pharmacy costs ($17,854, $14,805, and $14,398; P < 0.05). Patients initiating TNF-antagonist treatment for RA with infliximab incurred annual medication costs that were nearly 30% greater than costs in those initiating therapy with adalimumab or etanercept, in part because of the significantly greater rate of GTED in infliximab recipients.
    Clinical Therapeutics 05/2009; 31(4):825-35. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the impact of incident transformed migraine on health care resource utilization, medication use, and productivity loss. In addition, the study estimates the total direct and indirect costs associated with transformed migraine. Emerging evidence indicates that migraine may be a chronic progressive disorder characterized by escalating frequency of headache attacks, often termed transformed migraine. Little is known about the economic impact of transformed migraine. AMPP is a 5-year, national, longitudinal survey study of headache in the US. The study utilized data from the 2006 follow-up survey based on an initial sample of 14,544 adults identified as having migraine in either the 2004 screening or 2005 baseline survey. A diagnosis of migraine was assigned based on criteria proposed by the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd Edition. Participants completed self-administered, validated questionnaires on headache features, frequency, impairment, resource use, medication use, and productivity loss. Direct and indirect headache-related costs were estimated using unit cost assumptions from the PharMetrics Patient-Centric database, wholesale acquisition costs (Red Book), and wage data from the US Bureau of Labor Statistics. Those who developed transformed migraine were compared with those who did not develop transformed migraine in the 1-2 year interval between screening/baseline and follow-up. A total of 7796 (54%) identified migraine cases completed the 2006 follow-up survey. Of those cases, 359 (4.6%) developed transformed migraine. Participants who developed transformed migraine reported significantly more primary care visits, neurologist or headache specialist visits, pain clinic visits, and emergency room visits compared with participants whose migraine remained episodic. Hospital nights and urgent care visits did not reach statistical significance. Transformed migraine participants reported significantly more time missed at work or school because of headaches and more time where work or school productivity was reduced by >50% in the previous 3 months because of headaches. Average per-person annual total costs, including direct and indirect costs, were 4.4-fold greater for those who developed transformed migraine ($7750) compared with those who remained episodic ($1757). Transformed migraine exacts a significantly higher economic toll on patients and health care systems compared with other forms of migraine. Our findings support the need to prevent migraine progression and to provide appropriate management and treatment of transformed migraine.
    Headache The Journal of Head and Face Pain 02/2009; 49(4):498-508. · 2.94 Impact Factor
  • Value in Health 01/2009; 12(3). · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives:  Migraine is often perceived as a low-impact condition that imposes a limited burden to society and the health-care system. This study reviews the current understanding of the burden of migraine in the U.S., the history of economic understanding of migraine treatment and identifies emergent trends for future studies evaluating clinical and economic outcomes of migraine treatment.Methods:  This study traced the history of economic articles published on migraine by performing a literature search using PubMed MEDLINE database and ancestral searches of relevant articles. The intention was not to provide an exhaustive review of every article or adjudicate between studies with different findings.Results:  Migraine affects millions of individuals worldwide, generally during the most productive years of a person's life. Studies show that migraineurs are underdiagnosed, undertreated, and experience substantial decreases in functioning and productivity, which in turn translates into diminished quality of life for individuals, and financial burdens to both health-care systems and employers. Economic evaluations of migraine therapies have evolved with new clinical developments beginning with cognitive-behavioral therapy, introduction of triptans, concern over medication overuse, and emergence of migraine prophylaxis. Now recent clinical studies suggest that migraine may be a progressive disease with cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and long-term neurologic effects.Conclusions:  Migraine imposes a substantial burden on patients, families, employers and societies. The economic standards by which migraine and treatment are evaluated have evolved in response to clinical developments. Emerging evidence suggests that migraine is a chronic and progressive disease. If confirmed, approaches to acute and prophylactic treatments and economic evaluations of migraine treatment may require major reconsideration.
    Value in Health 12/2008; 12(1):55 - 64. · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Migraine is often perceived as a low-impact condition that imposes a limited burden to society and the health-care system. This study reviews the current understanding of the burden of migraine in the U.S., the history of economic understanding of migraine treatment and identifies emergent trends for future studies evaluating clinical and economic outcomes of migraine treatment. This study traced the history of economic articles published on migraine by performing a literature search using PubMed MEDLINE database and ancestral searches of relevant articles. The intention was not to provide an exhaustive review of every article or adjudicate between studies with different findings. Migraine affects millions of individuals worldwide, generally during the most productive years of a person's life. Studies show that migraineurs are underdiagnosed, undertreated, and experience substantial decreases in functioning and productivity, which in turn translates into diminished quality of life for individuals, and financial burdens to both health-care systems and employers. Economic evaluations of migraine therapies have evolved with new clinical developments beginning with cognitive-behavioral therapy, introduction of triptans, concern over medication overuse, and emergence of migraine prophylaxis. Now recent clinical studies suggest that migraine may be a progressive disease with cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and long-term neurologic effects. Migraine imposes a substantial burden on patients, families, employers and societies. The economic standards by which migraine and treatment are evaluated have evolved in response to clinical developments. Emerging evidence suggests that migraine is a chronic and progressive disease. If confirmed, approaches to acute and prophylactic treatments and economic evaluations of migraine treatment may require major reconsideration.
    Value in Health 08/2008; 12(1):55-64. · 2.19 Impact Factor
  • Value in Health 01/2007; 10(3). · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nonadherence with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is common in typical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patient care settings, but the consequences have not been well described. This study aimed to quantify the clinical and economic effects of nonadherence and estimate the cost-effectiveness of improving adherence in treatment-naive HIV patients. A Markov model was developed to project quality-adjusted life expectancy and direct medical costs for patients on an initial once-daily regimen of efavirenz, lamivudine, and stavudine XR. The model compared 2 adherence scenarios: "ideal" (based on clinical trials) and "typical" (based on observational studies in actual practice). Disease progression was a function of viral load, CD4 count, and adherence. Data on HIV natural history, treatment benefits, costs, and utilities were derived from the literature. With typical adherence, patients lose 1.2 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) that could be gained with ideal adherence. Improving adherence to ideal levels is cost-effective at 29,400 US dollars/QALY gained. As much as 1,600 US dollars/y per patient could be spent on an intervention to improve adherence to ideal levels, and the incremental cost-effectiveness would remain less than 50,000 US dollars/QALY gained. A cost-effectiveness ratio of 50,000 US dollars/QALY is a commonly accepted minimum standard for cost-effective medical interventions in the United States, although many experts believe this standard has drifted upwards over time. Typical adherence with HAART reduces quality-adjusted life expectancy by 12% compared with ideal adherence. Interventions to improve adherence appear to be a highly cost-effective use of resources.
    Medical Care 11/2006; 44(10):893-9. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The MEDLINE database was searched from 1972 to June 2002 to identify studies of interventions designed to improve compliance with antihypertensive or lipid-lowering medications. Studies were required to employ a controlled design, follow patients for >or=6 months and measure compliance by a method other than patient self-report. The literature review yielded 62 studies describing 79 interventions. Overall, 56% of interventions were reported to improve patient compliance. When only those studies meeting minimum criteria for methodological quality were considered, 22 interventions remained and 12 were recommended, because they demonstrated a significant improvement in compliance. Recommended interventions included fixed-dose combination drugs, once-daily or once-weekly dosing schedules, unit-dose packaging, educational counselling by telephone, case management by pharmacists, treatment in pharmacist- or nurse-operated disease management clinics, mailed refill reminders, self-monitoring, dose-tailoring, rewards and various combination strategies. Personalised, patient-focused programs that involved frequent contact with health professionals or a combination of interventions were the most effective at improving compliance. Less-intensive strategies, such as prescribing products that simplify the medication regimen or sending refill reminders, achieved smaller improvements in compliance but may be cost-effective due to their low cost.
    International Journal of Clinical Practice 12/2005; 59(12):1441-51. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    Value in Health 01/2004; 7(3):231-231. · 2.19 Impact Factor