[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutant forms of kinin B(1) receptor (B(1)R) and analogs of the full agonist des-Arg(9)-bradykinin (DABK) were investigated aiming to verify the importance of selected receptor residues and of each agonist-peptide residue in the specific binding and activation. Linked by a specific disulfide bond (Cys(100)-Cys(650)), the N-terminal (N(t)) and the EC3 loop C-terminal (C(t)) segments of angiotensin II (AngII) receptor 1 (AT(1)R) have been identified to form an extracellular site for binding the agonist N(t) segment (Asp(1) and Arg(2) residues). Asp(712) residue at the receptor EC3 loop binds the peptide Arg(2) residue. By homology, a similar site might be considered for DABK binding to B(1)R since this receptor contains the same structural elements for composing the site in AT(1)R, namely the disulfide bond and the EC3 loop Asp(712) residue. DABK, Ala(n)-DABK analogs (n = Ala(1)-, Ala(2)-, Ala(3)-, Ala(4)-, Ala(5)-, Ala(6)-, Ala(7)-, Ala(8)-DABK,) and other analogs were selected to binding wild-type, Asp712Ala and Cys100Ser mutated B(1)R receptors. The results obtained suggested that the same bimodal scheme adopted for AngII-AT(1)R system may be applied to DABK binding to B(1)R. The most crucial similarity in the two cases is that the N(t) segments of peptides equally bind to the homologous Asp(712) residue of both AT(1)R and B(1)R extracellular sites. Confirming this preliminary supposition, mutation of residues located at the B(1)R extracellular site as EC3 loop Asp(712) and Cys(100) caused the same modifications in biological assays observed in AT(1)R submitted to homologous mutations, such as significant weakening of agonist binding and reduction of post-receptor-activation processes. These findings provided enough support for defining a site that determines the specific binding of DABK to B(1)R receptors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bradykinin (BK) and des-Arg(9)-bradykinin (DBK) of kallikrein-kinin system exert its effects mediated by the B(2) (B(2)R) and B(1) (B(1)R) receptors, respectively. It was already shown that the deletion of kinin B(1)R or of B(2)R induces upregulation of the remaining receptor subtype [10,12,16,28,36]. However studies on overexpression of B(1)R or B(2)R in transgenic animals have supported the importance of the overexpressed receptor but the expression of the another receptor subtype has not been determined [17,19,33]. Previous study described a marked vasodilatation and increased susceptibility to endotoxic shock which was associated with increased mortality in response to DBK in thoracic aorta from transgenic rat overexpressing the kinin B(1)R (TGR(Tie(2)B(1))) exclusively in the endothelium. In another study, mice overexpressing B(1)R in multiple tissues were shown to present high susceptibility to inflammation and to lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock. Therefore the role of B(2)R was investigated in the thoracic aorta isolated from TGR(Tie(2)B(1)) rats overexpressing the B(1)R exclusively in the vascular endothelium. Our findings provided evidence for highly increased expression level of the B(2)R in the transgenic rats. It was reported that under endotoxic shock, these rats exhibited exaggerated hypotension, bradycardia and mortality. It can be suggested that the high mortality during the pathogenesis of endotoxic shock provoked in the transgenic TGR(Tie(2)B(1)) rats could be due to the enhanced expression of B(2)R associated with the overexpression of the B(1)R.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous research showed that disruption of the Cys(18)-Cys(274) bond in the angiotensin II (AngII) AT₁ receptor mutant (C18S), expressed in CHO cells, causes an increase in the basal activity and attenuation of the maximum response to AngII. In addition, this mutant was mostly intracellularly distributed. Our aim was to investigate whether the intracellular presence of the mutant was due to a constitutive internalization or to a defective maturation of the receptor. The first hypothesis was assessed by pretreating the cells with losartan or [Sar¹Leu⁸]-AngII, specific AT₁ receptor antagonists, a maneuver to revert the receptor internalization. The second hypothesis was tested using calnexin, an endoplasmic reticulum marker. We found that treatment with AT₁ receptor antagonists causes an increase in the binding ability of the mutant to AngII. Furthermore, whereas the maximum effect is increased, it reduces the enhanced basal levels of IP₃. The hypothesis for a lack of maturation of the mutant receptor was ruled out because calnexin was poorly colocalized with the intracellular C18S receptor. Our results suggest that the mutation of the AT₁ receptor leads to a conformational structure similar to that of the active mode of the AT₁ receptor, favoring its internalization in the absence of the agonist.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies on angiotensin II (AngII) AT(1) receptor function have revealed that the N-terminal residues of AngII may modulate receptor activation by binding at the receptor extracellular site. A remarkable feature of this site is an insertion of 8 amino acids in the middle of the EC-3 loop including the Cys(274) residue that supposedly makes a disulfide bond with N-terminal Cys(18). As demonstrated by assays with Del(267-275)AT(1), the role of the Cys(18)-Cys(274) disulfide bridge is to keep a conformation of the inserted residues that allows a normal binding of the AngII N-terminal residues. C18S AT(1) receptor mutant, supposedly having a dissociated disulfide bridge, but an intact residue insertion, is constitutively activated and can less efficiently bind AngII. Similar results were observed when the S-S disulfide bond was disrupted in (C18S,C274S) AT(1) receptor. The importance of the free N-terminal amino group of Asp(1) and of the Arg(2) guanidino group for the binding of AngII to C18S mutant with EC-3 loop insertion was investigated by means of assays using AngII peptide analogues bearing a single mutation of Asp(1) for Sar(1) or Arg(2) for Lys(2), as ligands. This study showed that like AngII, [Sar(1)]-AngII can bind the C18S mutant receptor with low affinity whereas [Lys(2)]-AngII binding is still more reduced. Interestingly, when (125)I-AngII instead of (3)H-AngII was used, no significant binding of this mutant was observed although wild type AT(1) receptor was shown to bind all AngII analogues.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bradykinin (BK) is a vasorelaxant, algesic and inflammatory agent. Angiotensin II (AngII) is known to control vascular tone and promote growth, inflammation and artherogenesis. There is evidence for cross talking between BK and AngII receptors. Therefore, the effect of lack of kinin receptors was assessed in mice with genetic disruption of B(1) or B(2) and both receptors. Responsiveness of abdominal aortic rings to BK and AngII as well as the receptor gene expression of both peptides were analysed. Although no specific phenotype was displayed in the normotensive and healthy mice lacking the kinin receptors, a decreased expression level of the remaining kinin receptor mRNA was observed. AT(1) receptor mRNA level was also reduced, indicating that kinin receptors regulate AngII receptors. Downregulation of the receptors was well correlated with reduction in the reactivity of both agonists to induce contraction of aortic rings, but other signal regulations must be sought in these transgenic mice. We conclude that cross talk between kinin and AngII receptors occurs in mouse abdominal aorta and that both peptides may regulate the initiation and progression of important pathophysiological processes, such as hypertension and inflammation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that the vascular reactivity of the mouse aorta differs substantially from that of the rat aorta in response to several agonists such as angiotensin II, endothelin-1 and isoproterenol. However, no information is available about the agonists bradykinin (BK) and DesArg(9)BK (DBK). Our aim was to determine the potential expression of kinin B(1) and B(2) receptors in the abdominal mouse aorta isolated from C57BL/6 mice. Contraction and relaxation responses to BK and DBK were investigated using isometric recordings. The kinins were unable to induce relaxation but concentration-contraction response curves were obtained by applying increasing concentrations of the agonists BK and DBK. These effects were blocked by the antagonists Icatibant and R-715, respectively. The potency (pD(2)) calculated from the curves was 7.0 +/- 0.1 for BK and 7.3 +/- 0.2 for DBK. The efficacy was 51 +/- 2% for BK and 30 +/- 1% for DBK when compared to 1 microM norepinephrine. The concentration-dependent responses of BK and DBK were markedly inhibited by the arachidonic acid inhibitor indomethacin (1 microM), suggesting a mediation by the cyclooxygenase pathway. These contractile responses were not potentiated in the presence of the NOS inhibitor L-NAME (1 mM) or endothelium-denuded aorta, indicating that the NO pathway is not involved. We conclude that the mouse aorta constitutively contains B(1) and B(2) subtypes of kinin receptors and that stimulation with BK and DBK induces contractile effect mediated by endothelium-independent vasoconstrictor prostanoids.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 06/2007; 40(5):649-55. DOI:10.1590/S0100-879X2006005000087 · 1.01 Impact Factor