[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (CaP) is the leading cancer among men of African descent in the USA, Caribbean, and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The estimated number of CaP deaths in SSA during 2008 was more than five times that among African Americans and is expected to double in Africa by 2030. We summarize publicly available CaP data and collected data from the men of African descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate (MADCaP) Consortium and the African Caribbean Cancer Consortium (AC3) to evaluate CaP incidence and mortality in men of African descent worldwide. CaP incidence and mortality are highest in men of African descent in the USA and the Caribbean. Tumor stage and grade were highest in SSA. We report a higher proportion of T1 stage prostate tumors in countries with greater percent gross domestic product spent on health care and physicians per 100,000 persons. We also observed that regions with a higher proportion of advanced tumors reported lower mortality rates. This finding suggests that CaP is underdiagnosed and/or underreported in SSA men. Nonetheless, CaP incidence and mortality represent a significant public health problem in men of African descent around the world.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are very common among older men in Western countries. However, the prevalence of these two conditions in the developing countries is less clear.
We assessed the age-standardized prevalence of BPH and/or LUTS among West Africans in a probability sample of 950 men aged 50-74 in Accra, Ghana, with no evidence of biopsy-confirmed prostate cancer after screening with PSA and digital rectal examination (DRE). Information on LUTS was based on self-reports of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). BPH was estimated using DRE, PSA levels and imputed prostate volume.
The prevalence of DRE-detected enlarged prostate was 62.3%, while that of PSA≥1.5 ng ml(-1) (an estimate of prostate volume ≥ 30 cm(3)) was 35.3%. The prevalence of moderate-to-severe LUTS (IPSS≥8) was 19.9%. The prevalence of IPSS≥8 and an enlarged prostate on DRE was 13.3%. Although there is no universally agreed-upon definition of BPH/LUTS, making comparisons across populations difficult, BPH and/or LUTS appear to be quite common among older Ghanaian men.
We found that after age standardization, the prevalence of DRE-detected enlarged prostate in Ghanaian men is higher than previously reported for American men, but the prevalence of LUTS was lower than previously reported for African Americans. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and identify the risk factors for BPH in both Africans and African Americans.
Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases 09/2011; 15(2):170-6. · 2.10 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic antigenic stimulation is associated with hypergamma-globulinemia. Higher rates of hypergamma-globulinemia in tropical populations are maintained even with migration to temperate regions. We conducted a population-based screening study to assess the prevalence and risk factors for hypergamma-globulinemia in Ghana, Africa. 917 Ghanaian males (50-74 years) underwent in-person interviews and health examinations. Serum from all persons was analyzed by electrophoresis performed on agarose gel; serum with a discrete/localized band was subjected to immunofixation. 54 persons with monoclonal proteins were excluded and 17 samples were insufficient for analysis. Using logistic regression and Chi-square statistics we analyzed patterns of hypergamma-globulinemia. Among 846 study subjects, the median γ-globulin level was 1.86 g/dL. On the basis of a U.S. reference, 616 (73%) had hypergamma-globulinemia (>1.6 g/dL) and 178 (21%) had γ-globulin levels >2.17 gm/dl. On multivariate analyses, lower education status (P = 0.0013) and never smoking (P = 0.038) were associated with increased γ-globulin levels. Self-reported history of syphilis was associated with hypergamma-globulinemia. We conclude that three quarters of this population-based adult Ghanaian male sample had hypergamma-globulinemia with γ-globulin levels >1.6 g/dL. Future studies are needed to uncover genetic and environmental underpinnings of our finding, and to define the relationship between hypergamma-globulinemia, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), and multiple myeloma.
American Journal of Hematology 07/2011; 86(7):554-8. · 4.00 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In search of common risk alleles for prostate cancer that could contribute to high rates of the disease in men of African ancestry, we conducted a genome-wide association study, with 1,047,986 SNP markers examined in 3,425 African-Americans with prostate cancer (cases) and 3,290 African-American male controls. We followed up the most significant 17 new associations from stage 1 in 1,844 cases and 3,269 controls of African ancestry. We identified a new risk variant on chromosome 17q21 (rs7210100, odds ratio per allele = 1.51, P = 3.4 × 10(-13)). The frequency of the risk allele is ∼5% in men of African descent, whereas it is rare in other populations (<1%). Further studies are needed to investigate the biological contribution of this allele to prostate cancer risk. These findings emphasize the importance of conducting genome-wide association studies in diverse populations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), a precursor of multiple myeloma (MM), in Ghanaian men vs white men and to test for evidence to support an underlying race-related predisposition of the 2-fold higher prevalence of MGUS in African Americans vs whites.
Between September 1, 2004, and September 30, 2006, 917 men (50-74 years) underwent in-person interviews and physical examinations. Serum samples from all participants were analyzed by electrophoresis performed on agarose gel; any serum sample with a discrete or localized band was subjected to immunofixation. Age-adjusted and standardized (to the 2000 world population) prevalence estimates of MGUS and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed in the Ghanaian men and compared with MGUS prevalence in 7996 white men from Minnesota. Associations between selected characteristics and MGUS prevalence were assessed by the Fisher exact test and logistic regression models.
Of the 917 study participants, 54 were found to have MGUS, yielding an age-adjusted prevalence of 5.84 (95% CI, 4.27-7.40) per 100 persons. No significant variation was found by age group, ethnicity, education status, or prior infectious diseases. The concentration of monoclonal immunoglobulin was undetectable in 41 (76%) of the 54 MGUS cases, less than 1 g/dL in 10 patients (19%), and 1 g/dL or more in only 3 patients (6%). Compared with white men, the age-adjusted prevalence of MGUS was 1.97-fold (95% CI, 1.94-2.00) higher in Ghanaian men.
The prevalence of MGUS in Ghanaian men was twice that in white men, supporting the hypothesis that race-related genetic susceptibility could explain the higher rates of MGUS in black populations. An improved understanding of MGUS and MM pathophysiology would facilitate the development of strategies to prevent progression of MGUS to MM.
Mayo Clinic Proceedings 01/2008; 82(12):1468-73. · 5.79 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
Prostate cancer (CaP) is the leading cancer diagnosed in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, relatively little is known about the clinical detection of CaP in SSA. In order to evaluate CaP detection in SSA, we evaluated the outcomes of prostate biopsies under conditions of usual clinical care.
Retrospective data were collected from 4,672 Black African men, who underwent prostate biopsy in Gaborone, Botswana; Accra, Ghana; Dakar, Senegal Cape Town, South Africa; Wadmedani, Sudan; and Kampala, Uganda. Clinical and pathological characteristics were collected using medical records information for prostate biopsies that were undertaken during the period 2005–2011. Comparison groups of White South Africans (N = 398) who underwent prostate biopsy, and African American (AA; N = 117) and European American (EA; N = 975) men with prostate cancer were also obtained.
Usual biopsy practices varied across SSA centers. The mean age at biopsy was 68.1 years (range: 25–100). The percentage of CaP identified was 11%, 36%, 43%, 48%, 87%, and 94% in Sudan, Senegal, South Africa, Ghana, Botswana, and Uganda, respectively. The Gleason scores 6 and 7 were predominant in Botswana, Senegal, and South Africa while the Gleason scores ≥ 8 were predominant in Sudan and Uganda. Compared to AA and EA, SSA and White South African men had substantially higher Gleason grade disease, and initial PSA at diagnosis was strongly associated with disease aggressiveness.
The knowledge gained from studies of prostate cancer in Africa may in turn improve our understanding of aggressive prostate cancer diagnosed anywhere in the world.
Journal africain du cancer / African Journal of Cancer 5(3).