[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to characterize larval habitats of Anopheline mosquitoes and to estimate the key ecological factors associated with this group's distribution. The study was carried out during June and July 2009 at 25 localities in 10 sectors of Larache Province. The aquatic habitats were sampled by standard dipping techniques. The habitats were character-ized based on water depth, pH, temperature, conductivity, salinity, distance to the nearest house, dissolved oxygen, algae and emergent plants (presence or absence), turbidity and habitat type. A total of 54 aquatic habitats consisting of swamps, rivers and rice fields were chosen. Fifty-two per cent of all habitat samples were positive for Anopheles larvae. Of all mosquito larvae collected, 1145 were Anopheles of which 316 (28 %) were early instars and 829 (72 %) late instars. Morphological identification of third and fourth larval instars revealed that 76 % (n = 629) were Anopheles maculipennis s.l. and 24 % (n = 200) were An. cinereus. The only species belonging to the Anopheles maculipennis complex was An. labranchiae. Multiple factorial correspondence analyses (MFCA) showed that the density of An. labranchiae was negatively associated with turbidity, pH and depth in aquatic habitats. These findings suggest that the distribution of An. labranchiae was driven by different environmental factors. This will help in understanding the relationship between habitats, environmental factors and abundance of Anopheles larvae, which is essential for the efficient application of mosquito control methods.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anopheles labranchiae Falleroni is the only member of the Maculipennis Group known to occur in northern Africa; however, confusion exists as to the taxonomic status of its junior synonym, An. sicaulti Roubaud (type locality: near Rabat, Morocco). Based on morphological and behavioural distinctions, it has been suggested that Moroccan populations have been isolated from other North African populations by the Atlas Mountains, and that Moroccan populations may represent An. sicaulti, originally described as a variety of An. maculipennis Meigen. DNA barcodes (658bp of the mitochondrial COI gene) obtained from 89 An. maculipennis s.l. collected in Morocco (n=79) and Algeria (n=10) in 2007 and 2008 were used to determine if Moroccan populations are genetically isolated from those east of the Atlas Mountains (Algeria), and whether there is molecular evidence to support the presence of more than one member of the Maculipennis Group in the region. No evidence for speciation was found between Moroccan and Algerian populations, or within populations in northern Morocco. Moreover shared COI haplotypes between Algeria and Morocco indicate ongoing gene flow between populations in these countries, suggesting that the Atlas Mountains are not a boundary to gene flow in An. labranchiae. The synonymy of An. sicaulti with An. labranchiae is confirmed. That An. labranchiae comprises the same species in these North African countries is important for malaria control.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Moroccan Health Ministry launched a Process of Eliminating Schistosomiasis in 1994. During 2005-2009, the epidemiologic status showed a clear interruption of disease transmission at the national level; only a few residual cases were recorded. Our present study is the first systematic serologic survey to evaluate the transmission status in remaining disease-endemic foci. A study population of 2,382 children born after the date of the last autochthonous cases were selected from provinces with histories of high schistosomiasis transmission (Tata, Chtouka Ait Baha, Errachidia, El Kelaa Des Sraghna, and Beni Mellal). To identify the presence of disease, specific antibodies directed against Schistosoma haematobium adult worm microsomal antigens were detected by using an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay. The results showed an absence of antibodies in all serum samples. Consequently, our findings confirm either a low transmission status or an interruption of schistosomiasis transmission within the last disease endemic foci.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 01/2011; 84(1):15-9. · 2.53 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to investigate the influence of functional polymorphisms of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), Fcg receptors CD16A (FCGR3A) and CD32A (FCGR2A) genes on susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in the Moroccan population, we analyzed 123 patients with PTB and 154 healthy controls. The genotyping for MIF-173 (G/C) (rs755622), FCGR2A-131H/R (rs1801274) and FCGR3A-158V/F (rs396991) was carried out using TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assay method. We found a statistically significant increase of the MIF -173CC homozygote genotype and MIF -173*C allele frequencies in PTB patients compared with healthy controls (17.07%versus 5.84%, P = 0.003; and 35.37%versus 26.30%, P = 0.02; respectively). In contrast, no association was observed between FCGR2A-131H/R and FCGR3A-158V/F polymorphisms and tuberculosis disease. Our finding suggests that MIF -173*C variant may play an important role in the development of active tuberculosis.
Journal of Genetics and Genomics 04/2010; 37(4):257-64. · 2.08 Impact Factor