[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastro-intestinal (GI) symptoms are often experienced by healthy women during menstruation. An increased frequency of GI symptoms during menses has also been reported in women with irritable bowel syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, IBD patients with restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomoses (IPAA) have not been studied. We aimed to examine the association between GI symptoms before and during menses in patients with IPAA, and to assess factors for exacerbation of GI symptoms in those patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) might contribute to a refractory course of pouchitis. However, the association between preoperative CDI and postoperative CDI in ileal pouch patients has not been investigated.
Our study aimed to evaluate whether preoperative CDI had an impact on the occurrence of postoperative CDI in pouch patients.
Consecutive eligible ileal pouch patients from February 2005 to December 2012 were identified from the Pouchitis Registry at the Cleveland Clinic. Patients in the registry with known status of CDI of the pouch were surveyed with a structured questionnaire regarding preoperative C. difficile test and its treatment. Medical records were also reviewed. Demographics and clinical characteristics and outcomes were evaluated with univariable and multivariable analyses.
A total of 102 patients with preoperative C. difficile test were identified for this study and 21 patients (20.6 %) tested positive for C. difficile test after colectomy. In logistic regression analysis, male patients were 7.85 (P = 0.003) times more likely to have CDI than women. In addition, preoperative significant comorbidities (P = 0.037) and preoperative use antibiotics for other indications (P = 0.005) were found to be associated with postoperative CDI of the pouch. However, there was no evidence to suggest that the preoperative CDI was associated with the occurrence of postoperative CDI (P = 0.769).
Postoperative CDI occurred frequently in male patients with IPAA. In addition, preoperative comorbidities and antibiotic use were found to be risk factors for CDI of the pouch. However, preoperative CDI did not appear to be associated with an increased risk for postoperative CDI in pouch patients.
Digestive Diseases and Sciences 02/2014; · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polypoid lesions can develop in ileal pouches. The risk factors associated with the development of pouch polyps have not been studied.
To characterize clinical features, risk factors, and disease course of pouch polyp in a cohort of patients with underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) from a subspecialty clinic.
A total of 1094 patients with restorative proctocolectomy and IPAA for IBD presenting to our Pouchitis Clinic from 2002 to 2010 were included. Demographic, clinical, and endoscopic variables were analyzed.
The median durations from UC diagnosis to colectomy and from pouch creation to the last follow-up for the whole cohort were 6 (interquartile range [IQR]: 3-13) and 9years (IQR: 5-14), respectively. A total of 2472 surveillance and/or diagnostic pouchoscopies were performed for the cohort with a median follow-up of 5 (IQR: 2-6) years in the Pouchitis Clinic. The median number of pouchoscopies per patient was 2 (IQR: 1-3). Of the 1094 patients, 96 (8.8%) were found to have pouch polyps. The median size of the polyps was 1.2 (IQR: 1.0-2.0) cm. On histology, 93 patients (96.9%) had inflammatory-type polyps and 3 (3.1%) had polyps with low-grade dysplasia or indefinite for dysplasia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that chronic pouch inflammatory change was a risk factor for the development of pouch polyp with an odds ratio of 2.26 (95% confidence interval: 1.35-3.79; P=0.002).
The majority of pouch polyps in patients with underlying UC were benign. Patients with concomitant chronic pouch inflammatory changes had an increased risk for developing pouch polyps.
Journal of Crohn s and Colitis 10/2013; · 3.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is no consensus on the need for and the interval of surveillance pouchoscopy in asymptomatic ileal pouch patients with underlying ulcerative colitis (UC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the likelihood of finding dysplasia or incidental ileal pouch disorders in asymptomatic patients undergoing surveillance pouchoscopy.
This study included all eligible consecutive asymptomatic UC patients undergoing surveillance pouchoscopy to our subspecialty Pouchitis Clinic from 2002 to 2011. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed.
A total of 138 patients met the inclusion criteria, with 72 (52.2 %) being male. The mean age at pouch construction was 45.4 ± 15.0 years, and the mean interval from ileostomy closure to the inception of first surveillance pouchoscopy was 89.4 ± 78.8 months. One patient was found to have indefinite for dysplasia on pouch body mucosal biopsy (0.7 %), and two patients had non-caseating granulomas, suggesting Crohn's disease (CD) of the pouch. Of the 138 patients, 69 (50 %) had abnormal endoscopic findings, 102 (73.9 %) had acute and/or chronic inflammation on histology, and 62 (44.9 %) had both abnormal endoscopy and histology. The abnormal endoscopic findings included isolated pouch ulcer (n = 29, 21 %), active pouchitis (n = 31, 22.5 %), inflammatory polyps (n = 10, 7.2 %), strictures at the anastomosis (n = 5, 3.6 %), inlet (n = 10, 7.2 %) or outlet (n = 2, 1.4 %). Thirteen patients (13/17, 76.5 %) with pouch strictures underwent endoscopic balloon dilatation therapy and nine had (9/10, 90 %) endoscopic polypectomy. Multivariable analysis showed that patients with a preoperative diagnosis of CD and concomitant extraintestinal manifestations had a higher risk for abnormal pouch endoscopic findings with odds ratios of 2.552 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.108-16.545, p = 0.035) and 4.281 (95 % CI 1.204-5.409, p = 0.014), respectively.
Dysplasia was rare in asymptomatic patients with restorative proctocolectomy who underwent surveillance pouchoscopy in this cross-sectional study. However, "incidental" abnormal endoscopic and/or histologic findings were common, which often needed endoscopic therapeutic intervention.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: The clinical implication of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been well studied. This study was designed to investigate the cumulative incidence, risk factors, and outcome of CDI in patients with ileal pouches. METHODS:: Consecutive IPAA patients (n = 196) from the subspecialty Pouchitis Clinic with an increase of at least three stools per day more from the postoperative baseline for more than 4 weeks were enrolled from October 2010 to December 2011. CDI was diagnosed based on the presence of symptoms and positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based stool test for C. difficile toxin B. Risk factors for CDI were assessed with univariate and multivariate analyses. All patients with CDI (n = 21) were treated with oral vancomycin (500 - 1000mg/day) for 2-4 weeks. The treatment outcome of these patients was documented. RESULTS:: Twenty-one patients (10.7%) were diagnosed with CDI. On univariate analysis, patients with CDI had more stool frequency (P = 0.014) and significant current weight loss (P = 0.003) than patients with no CDI. In logistic regression analysis, there was a trend that recent hospitalization (odds ratio [OR] = 4.00, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95-16.84) might be associated with CDI. Of the 14 CDI patients with follow-up data, eight (57.1%) had either recurrent (n = 5) or refractory (n = 3) CDI after oral vancomycin therapy. CONCLUSIONS:: A high index of suspicion for CDI in pouch patients should be given to those with recent hospitalization or constitutional symptoms, such as weight loss. Recurrent or refractory CDI is common, even with standard oral vancomycin therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fecal antibodies against bacterial products may directly reflect the interaction between luminal bacteria and mucosal immunity, and assays for these antibodies may be clinically useful in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Crohn's disease-like (CDL) condition of the pouch.
This study aims to evaluate stool and serum anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) in normal and diseased pouches, to assess the correlation between ASCA levels and endoscopic disease activity, and to ascertain the diagnostic utility of ASCA for CDL of the pouch.
One hundred eighty-nine patients with ileal pouches were prospectively enrolled and corresponding serum and pouch aspirate samples were collected. Fecal and serum ASCA levels were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in a blinded fashion. Statistical analysis was then conducted using the signed rank test, Spearman correlation coefficients, and analysis of variance.
Forty-three patients (22.8 %) had irritable pouch syndrome or normal pouches, 74 (39.2 %) had pouchitis/cuffitis, 52 (27.5 %) had CDL, 9 (4.8 %) had familial adenomatous polyposis, and 11 (5.8 %) had surgical complications of the pouch. Receiver operating characteristic curves to distinguish CDL from other categories of pouch dysfunction had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.608 for fecal ASCA and an AUC of 0.517 for serum ASCA. Neither fecal nor serum ASCA correlated with endoscopic disease activity scores. There was a significant difference in the mean values of fecal ASCA between inflammatory and fistulizing CDL (0.27 vs. 0.03 ELISA units/ml, P < 0.05).
Fecal ASCA appears to be better than serum ASCA in differentiating CDL from other pouch disorders, although this distinction may be of limited clinical utility.
International Journal of Colorectal Disease 03/2012; 27(11):1455-63. · 2.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) of the pouch can develop in patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, resulting in significant morbidities, even pouch failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate short- and long-term outcome of adalimumab (ADA) in treating these patients. METHODS: A total of 48 patients who received ADA for CD of the pouch from June 2006 to June 2011 were identified from our prospectively maintained Pouchitis Registry Complete clinical response was defined as the resolution of symptoms as well as the modified Pouchitis Disease Activity Index (mPDAI) score being less than 5. Partial clinical response was defined as improvement in symptoms as well as a reduction in mPDAI score of 2 or more. Endoscopic mucosal healing status before and after therapy was recorded. RESULTS: At a short follow-up of median 8 weeks, 24 (50%) patients had complete response, 10 (21%) had partial response, and 14 (29%) had no response. After a median follow-up of 25.1 months, 16 (33%) patients had a complete response, 10 (21%) had a partial response, and 22 (46%) had no response. At the end of the follow-up, 13 (27%) patients achieved mucosal healing. A total of nine (19%) patients eventually developed pouch failure. Patients with a long-term response had a significantly higher mucosal healing rate (60.9% vs. 28.6%, P = 0.032) and significantly lower median mPDAI score (2.0 vs. 5.0, P = 0.004) at the first follow-up evaluation than those with no long-term response. Multivariate analysis showed concurrent endoscopic stricture dilation (hazard ratio = 5.9; 95% confidence interval: 1.6, 21.2) increased the chance for the long-term response to ADA. One patient developed multiple sclerosis during the therapy. CONCLUSIONS: ADA treatment, particularly in conjunction with endoscopic therapy, may help rescue a subgroup of patients with CD of the pouch from having surgery. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2012;).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoscopic management of ileal pouch strictures has not been systemically studied. The aim was to evaluate endoscopic balloon therapy of pouch strictures in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients with ileal pouches and to identify risk factors for pouch failure for those patients.
Consecutive IBD patients with pouches from the Pouchitis Clinic who underwent nonfluoroscopy-guided outpatient endoscopic therapy were studied. The location, number, degree (range 0-3), and length of strictures and balloon size were documented. Efficacy and safety were evaluated with univariate and multivariate analyses.
A total of 150 patients with pouch strictures were studied. Stricture locations were at the pouch inlet (n = 96), outlet (n = 73), afferent limb (n = 33), and pouch body (n = 2). A cumulative of 646 strictures were endoscopically dilated, with a total of 406 pouchoscopies. The median stricture score was 1 (interquartile range [IQR] 1-2); the median stricture length was 1 (IQR 0.5-1.25) cm, and the median balloon size was 20 (IQR 18-20) mm. Of 406 therapeutic endoscopies performed, there were two perforations (0.46%) and four transfusion-required bleeding (0.98%). The 5-, 10-, and 25-year pouch retention rates were 97%, 90.6%, and 85.9%, respectively. In a median follow-up of 9.6 (IQR 6-17) years, 131 patients (87.3%) were able to retain their pouches. The number of strictures and underlying diagnosis were independent risk factors for pouch failure in the Cox regression model.
Endoscopic treatment of pouch stricture appears to be efficacious and generally safe to perform in experienced hands. Underlying diagnosis of Crohn's disease of the pouch and surgery-related strictures and multiple strictures were the risk factors for pouch failure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although a majority of patients with pouchitis respond favorably to antibiotic therapy, many relapse frequently, and nonabsorbable and non-antibiotic-based agents are desirable for reducing bacterial resistance and the systemic adverse effects associated with long-term antibiotic exposure. AST-120 (a spherical carbon adsorbent) comprises highly adsorptive, porous carbon microspheres with the ability to adsorb small-molecular-weight toxins, inflammatory mediators,and harmful bile acids. The aim of this pilot trial was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of AST-120 in the treatment of active pouchitis.
Eligible patients were recruited from two subspecialty pouchitis clinics. Inclusion criteria were(i) ileal pouch-anal anastomosis performed for ulcerative colitis; (ii) active pouchitis with Pouchitis Disease Activity Index (PDAI) scores > or =7; and (iii) discontinuation of antibiotic therapy for at least 2 weeks. Exclusion criteria included Crohn's disease of the pouch, isolated cuffitis, pouch strictures, abscess, and sinuses. All eligible patients received AST-120 in 2-g sachets (oral) open label, thrice a day for 4 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was remission as defined by a PDAI score of < 7 points; the main secondary end point was clinical response, defined by a reduction of the PDAI score of > or =3 points.
Nineteen of 20 patients completed the trial. Eleven patients (55.0 % ) had a clinical response to the therapy and 10 patients (50.0 % ) entered remission. Median reduction in the PDAI symptom, endoscopy, and histology subscores, and PDAI total scores after 4 weeks were -2( P = 0.002), -2 ( P = 0.003), 0 ( P = 0.32), and -4 ( P = 0.001) points, respectively. The agent was well tolerated; one patient experienced transient mild elevation of alkaline phosphatase of uncertain significance and one patient experienced an upper respiratory infection after taking one dose of AST-120 and was excluded from the fi nal analysis for the calculation of pre- and post-trial PDAI scores.
AST-120 seems to be effective and well tolerated in treating patients with active pouchitis.A randomized, placebo-controlled trial is warranted for assessing the long-term efficacy and safety of AST-120 in the disease.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology 05/2009; 104(6):1468-74. · 7.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone mineral density (BMD) can be adversely affected by the chronic nature of inflammatory bowel disease. Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the surgical treatment of choice for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) who require proctocolectomy. There are few data on BMD in UC patients with IPAA. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors associated with low BMD in UC patients after IPAA.
A total of 327 eligible patients with UC and IPAA from the Pouchitis Clinic were enrolled. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed. Patients were classified as having normal or low BMD, based on the criteria by the International Society for Clinical Densitometry. A total of 39 demographic and clinical variables were evaluated with logistic regression models.
Of 327 patients with a median of 4 years after IPAA, 105 (32.1%) had low BMD. Fragility fracture was documented in 11 patients (10.5%) in the low BMD group and in 13 of 222 patients (5.9%) in the normal BMD group (P=0.14). In the multivariable analysis, covariate-adjusted factors associated with a low BMD were advanced age (odds ratio (OR) =1.64 per 5 years; 95% CI, 1.44-1.87), low body mass index (OR=0.43 per 5 kg/m(2); 95% CI, 0.30-0.62), and non-use of daily calcium supplement (OR=0.53; 95% CI, 0.29-0.96). Pouch-associated factors were not found to be significantly associated with the bone loss.
Low BMD was common in patients with UC, even after colectomy and IPAA. Low BMD in this patient population was associated with certain risk factors, some of which may be modifiable.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology 04/2009; 104(3):639-46. · 7.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Crohn's disease (CD) of the pouch can develop in patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). Scant data are available on the treatment of this disease entity.
To evaluate efficacy and safety of adalimumab in treating CD of the ileal pouch.
From June 2007 to June 2008, 17 IPAA patients with inflammatory (n = 10), fibrostenotic (n = 2) or fistulizing (n = 5) CD of the pouch treated with adalimumab were evaluated. Inclusion criteria were CD of the pouch who failed medical therapy and were otherwise qualified for permanent pouch diversion or excision. All qualified patients received the standard dosing regimen of subcutaneous injection adalimumab (160 mg at week 0, 80 mg at week 1, and 40 mg every other week thereafter). Complete clinical response was defined as resolution of symptoms. Partial clinical response was defined as improvement in symptoms. Endoscopic inflammation before and after therapy was recorded, using the Pouchitis Disease Activity Index (PDAI) endoscopy subscores.
The median age was 36 years with 12 patients (70.6%) being male. At 4 weeks, seven patients (41.2%) had a complete symptom response and 6 (35.3%) had a partial response. There was also a significant improvement in the PDAI endoscopy subscores at week 4 (P < 0.05). At the last follow-up (median of 8 weeks), eight patients (47.1%) had a complete symptom response and 4 (23.5%) had a partial response. Four patients (23.6%) developed adverse effects. Three patients (17.7%) eventually had pouch failure after failing to respond to adalimumab therapy.
Adalimumab appeared to be well-tolerated and efficacious in treating CD of the pouch in this open-labelled induction study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autoimmune disorders (ADs) frequently coexist with inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of the study was to determine whether coexisting AD in patients with ileal pouches increases the risk for chronic antibiotic-refractory pouchitis (CARP) and other inflammatory conditions of the pouch.
A total of 622 patients seen in our Pouchitis Clinic were enrolled. We compared the prevalence of adverse outcomes of the pouch (including CARP, Crohn's disease of the pouch, and pouch failure) in patients with or without concurrent AD and assessed the factors for these adverse outcomes.
There were seven pouch disease categories: normal (N=60), irritable pouch syndrome (N=112), active pouchitis (N=131), CARP (N=67), Crohn's disease (N=131), cuffitis (N=83), surgical complications (N=36), and anismus (N=2). The prevalence of AD in these pouch disease categories was 4.5%, 12.5%, 9.2%, 13.4%, 10.7%, 3.8%, 1.5%, and 0%, respectively. The presence of at least one AD at time of pouch surgery was shown to be associated with a twofold increase in the risk for CARP (hazard ratio=2.29; 95% CI: 1.52, 3.46; P<0.001) and for pouch-associated hospitalization (hazard ratio=2.39; 95% CI: 1.59, 3.58; P<0.001). The presence of AD was not associated with increased risk for irritable pouch syndrome, active pouchitis, Crohn's disease, cuffitis, surgical complications, or pouch failure. Patients with Crohn's disease of the pouch had a 2.42 times higher risk for pouch failure (P=0.042) than these without. Active smoking or a history of smoking was shown to be associated with an increased risk for pouch-associated hospitalization and pouch failure.
AD appears to be associated with an increased risk for CARP, and the presence of the association between these AD and pouch disorders may stimulate further research on the link of these organ systems on an immunological basis.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2009; 104(3):655-64. · 7.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Irritable pouch syndrome (IPS) is a functional disease in patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis following colectomy for ulcerative colitis (UC). The pathophysiology of IPS is characterized by the presence of visceral hypersensitivity, similar to that seen in irritable bowel syndrome. However, the exact etiology and pathogenesis of IPS are not known. We hypothesized that serotonin-containing enteroendocrine cells or enterochromaffin (EC) cell hyperplasia and alterations in the mucosal immune cells may contribute to the patients' symptoms. The aim of the study was to assess EC cell hyperplasia and alterations in the mucosal immune cells in IPS.
The Pouchitis Disease Activity Index (PDAI) was used to quantify symptoms and mucosal inflammation in 36 patients with IPS and 25 patients with normal pouches. The histology and immunohistochemistry of pouch mucosal biopsies were assessed by a blinded gastrointestinal pathologist for intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), CD3+ T cells, CD25- (interleukin [IL]-2 receptor), tryptase- (mast cells), and serotonin-expressing cells. The numbers of IEL and immune-stained cells were compared between the two groups.
Both groups were compatible demographically in terms of age, gender, duration of UC, stage, indication, and duration of the pouch surgery. There were no differences in the number of IEL, CD3+ T cells, CD25+ cells, and mast cells between the IPS and normal control groups. However, there were a significantly larger number of EC cells in the IPS group than that in the control group (54.8 +/- 24.9 vs 36.7 +/- 17.5 per 4 200x epithelial cells, P < 0.005). The number of EC cells appeared to be correlated with the symptom score (r = 0.276, P= 0.032). There were no significant correlations between the PDAI endoscopy and histology scores and the number of EC cells or between the PDAI scores and the number of IEL or other immune-stained cells.
A greater number of EC cells were found in the IPS group than the normal pouch group, and the number of EC cells appeared to be correlated with the clinical symptoms of IPS. EC cell hyperplasia may be a contributing mechanism of visceral hypersensitivity and symptoms in IPS.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology 09/2008; 103(9):2293-300. · 7.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Crohn's disease (CD) of the pouch is one of the leading causes of pouch failure in patients with restorative proctocolectomy. Risk factors for pouch failure in these patients are yet to be identified. The aim of the study was to assess risk factors associated with pouch failure in patients with CD of the pouch.
All patients with a confirmed diagnosis of CD of the pouch in the Pouchitis Clinic between 2002 and 2007 were evaluated. Patients with familial adenomatous polyposis, normal pouches, pouchitis, cuffitis, surgical complications, and other diseased pouch conditions were excluded. Pouch failure was defined as the requirement for a permanent diversion or pouch resection. Demographic and clinical factors were studied with univariable and multivariable analyses.
A total of 137 patients with CD of the pouch were included. Twenty-two patients (16%) developed pouch failure a median of 6 years after ileostomy takedown. Four of 50 patients (8.0%) with inflammatory CD, 4 of 30 (13.3%) with fibrostenotic CD, and 14 of 57 (24.6%) with fistulizing CD had pouch failure. A Kaplan-Meier plot for time to pouch failure by CD phenotype showed a trend toward association (P = 0.054) in patients with fistulizing CD. Adjusting for age, smoking status, and the use of immunomodulators or biologics, fistulizing CD was not found to be significantly associated with a higher hazard for pouch failure. Younger age, being an ex-smoker, and the use of immunomodulators or biologics were found to increase the hazard of pouch failure.
Younger age, being an ex-smoker, and the requirement for immunomodulators or biologics were associated with pouch failure. The identification of these risk factors may help delineate the natural history of CD of the pouch and shed light on proper clinical management and prognosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There has been an increase in the incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in the U.S. The importance of C difficile infection in patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is unknown. This study was designed to determine risk of acquiring C difficile infection in pouch disorders.
Consecutive ulcerative colitis patients (n = 115) with IPAA undergoing pouch endoscopy were enrolled from May 2005-March 2006. Fecal specimens of pouch aspirate were collected during pouch endoscopy and analyzed for C difficile toxin A and B by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Nineteen clinical, endoscopic, and histologic variables were assessed with stepwise selection methods. Two multivariate logistic regression models were constructed.
Twenty-one patients (18.3%) were positive for C difficile infection. Adjusting for other factors in the model, men were 5.12 (95% confidence interval, 1.38-20.46) times more likely to have C difficile infection than women. Compared with patients with pancolitis, those with preoperative left-sided colitis were 8.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.25-56.4) times more likely to have C difficile infection. Six of 6 patients with C difficile infection (3 with refractory pouchitis, 2 with Crohn's disease, and 1 with irritable pouch syndrome) with repeat clinical, endoscopic, and laboratory evaluation after anti-C difficile therapy experienced clinical remission and disappearance of C difficile toxin from stools, with 4 showing decreased mucosal inflammation.
C difficile infection involving IPAA is common, characteristically occurring with or without previous receipt of antibiotics. Treatment of C difficile infection in patients with IPAA might improve the clinical outcome.
Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 07/2008; 6(7):782-8. · 5.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although tissue eosinophilia in mucosal biopsy specimens from the ileal pouch in patients treated with restorative proctocolectomy is frequently seen, its clinical significance has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess whether tissue eosinophilia was associated with disease status of ileal pouches.
Hematoxylin and eosin slides of pouch and afferent limb biopsy specimens from 106 patients randomly selected from the Pouchitis Database were evaluated by 2 gastrointestinal pathologists. Of 106 patients, 81 had corresponding mucosal biopsy specimens of the afferent limb that were available for review. Tissue eosinophil infiltration was evaluated in a semiquantitative fashion with scores ranging from 0-3. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the association between eosinophil scores and demographic, clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features.
Multivariate analyses showed that tissue eosinophilia of the pouch and afferent limb was not associated with chronic inflammatory conditions of the pouch and the presence of concurrent autoimmune-mediated disorders. Tissue eosinophil score of the pouch was significantly higher than that in the corresponding afferent limb in the same patient population (P = 0.043). A high tissue eosinophil score in the afferent limb was associated with non-use nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use (odds ratio = 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2, 10.4) and high endoscopic inflammation scores in the afferent limb (odds ratio = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.2). Similar associations were not found in pouch biopsy specimens.
Tissue eosinophilia in the pouch was more prominent than that in the afferent limb in patients with restorative proctocolectomy. Tissue eosinophilia in the pouch and afferent limb appeared to be associated with different risk factors. These findings suggest that luminal factors in different topographical locations of the pouch may contribute to eosinophil-mediated inflammation at these sites.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pouchitis is the most common long-term complication of in patients with restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Patients often develop antibiotic-dependent form of pouchitis requiring long-term antibiotic therapy for remission maintenance. Rifaximin, an oral, non-systemic, broad-spectrum antibiotic with a favorable safety profile, may be a promising candidate agent for maintenance therapy. This historical cohort open-label study investigated the efficacy and tolerability of rifaximin in maintaining symptomatic and endoscopic remission in patients with antibiotic-dependent pouchitis.
Adult patients with antibiotic-dependent pouchitis received a 2-week course of various antibiotics for induction of remission. Patients in remission then began maintenance therapy with rifaximin 200 mg/day (to 1800 mg/day) for up to 24 months. Pouchitis Disease Activity Index symptom scores were assessed every 1-3 months to evaluate efficacy.
Fifty-one patients began maintenance therapy with rifaximin (median dose 200 mg/day); 33 (65%) maintained remission through 3 months (primary endpoint). Of these 33 patients, 26 (79%) successfully continued maintenance for 6 months after beginning maintenance, 19 (58%) successfully continued for 12 months, and two (6%) successfully continued for 24 months. Only one patient reported an adverse event (transient facial rash).
Patients' response to rifaximin as a maintenance therapy appears to be favorable in this open-labeled trial of antibiotic-dependent pouchitis. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials with a longer follow-up are warranted.