[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-pressure processing (HPP) can reduce or eliminate microorganisms of concern in food without deteriorating product quality; however, quality benefits must justify the substantial capital investment for the utilization of this technology. HPP is particularly a beneficial preservation technology for products damaged by thermal treatments or when product quality could be improved by reformulation to raise pH or eliminate chemical preservatives. The primary objectives of this study were to determine the efficacy of HPP to protect premium ranch dressing (pH 4.4) from microbial spoilage and to assess changes in physical, chemical, and sensory attributes throughout the product's shelf life. In inoculated-packages studies, the efficacy of HPP was measured against ranch dressing spoilage organisms: Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus brevis, and Torulaspora delbrueckii. HPP treatment (600 MPa, 3 min) decreased population of P. acidilactici, the most pressure-resistant spoilage organism tested, by >or= 6.4 log CFU/g. During a shelf-life study of edible product, treating ranch dressing at 600 MPa for 5 min effectively prevented microbial spoilage throughout the storage period (26 wk at 4 and 26 degrees C). The pH and emulsion stability of ranch dressing were not adversely influenced by HPP. Extended storage of HPP product for 16 to 26 wk at 26 degrees C resulted in a decrease in consumer acceptance and significant changes in color and organic acid profile (specifically, increased pyroglutamic acid). These changes were consistent with those expected during extended storage of commercially available products. HPP may be used to produce premium ranch dressing, with defined shelf-life and storage conditions, without significantly changing product attributes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three Listeria monocytogenes strains (Scott A, OSY-8578, and OSY-328) that differ considerably in barotolerance were grown to stationary phase and suspended individually in phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). Twelve phenolic compounds, including commercially used food additives, were screened for the ability to sensitize L. monocytogenes to high-pressure processing (HPP). Each L. monocytogenes strain was exposed to each of the 12 phenolic compounds (100 ppm each) for 60 min; this was followed by a pressure treatment at 400 MPa for 5 min. Six phenolic compounds increased the efficacy of HPP against L. monocytogenes but tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) was the most effective. The additives alone at 100 ppm were not lethal for L. monocytogenes. Subsequently, the three L. monocytogenes strains were exposed to TBHQ before or after pressure treatments at 400 or 500 MPa for 5 min. When TBHQ was added after the pressure treatment, the combined treatment was more lethal than was pressure alone. However, the lethality attributable to TBHQ was greater when the additive was applied before rather than after pressure treatment. The inactivation kinetics of the L. monocytogenes strains at 300, 500, and 700 MPa, in the presence or absence of TBHQ, was investigated. All survivor plots showed non-linear inactivation kinetics, but tailing behavior was most pronounced when HPP was used alone. Combinations of TBHQ and HPP eliminated tailing behavior when survivors were monitored by direct plating or an enrichment procedure. Pressure and phenolic additives are apparently a potent bactericidal combination against L. monocytogenes.
International Journal of Food Microbiology 03/2006; 106(3):263-9. DOI:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2005.06.025 · 3.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Food-grade additives were used to enhance the efficacy of high-pressure processing (HPP) against barotolerant Listeria monocytogenes. Three strains of L. monocytogenes (Scott A, OSY-8578, and OSY-328) were compared for their sensitivity to HPP, nisin, tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), and their combination. Inactivation of these strains was evaluated in 0.2 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) and commercially sterile sausage. A cell suspension of L. monocytogenes in buffer (10(9) CFU/ml) was treated with TBHQ at 100 ppm, nisin at 100 IU/ml, HPP at 400 MPa for 5 min, and combinations of these treatments. Populations of strains Scott A, OSY-8578, and OSY-328 decreased 3.9, 2.7, and 1.3 log with HPP alone and 6.4, 5.2, and 1.9 log with the HPP-TBHQ combination, respectively. Commercially sterile sausage was inoculated with the three L. monocytogenes strains (10(6) to 10(7) CFU/g) and treated with selected combinations of TBHQ (100 to 300 ppm), nisin (100 and 200 ppm), and HPP (600 MPa, 28 degrees C, 5 min). Samples were enriched to detect the viability of the pathogen after the treatments. Most of the samples treated with nisin, TBHQ, or their combination were positive for L. monocytogenes. HPP alone resulted in a modest decrease in the number of positive samples. L. monocytogenes was not detected in any of the inoculated commercial sausage samples after treatment with HPP-TBHQ or HPP-TBHQ-nisin combinations. These results suggest that addition of TBHQ or TBHQ plus nisin to sausage followed by in-package pressurization is a promising method for producing Listeria-free ready-to-eat products.
Journal of food protection 05/2005; 68(4):744-50. · 1.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Model salad dressing inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum 8014 was subjected to pulsed electric fields (PEF)-only processing and PEF followed by a mild heat treatment. More than 7 log inactivation was achieved by using PEF-only processing at 34 kV/cm for 45.7́micros with minimal heat contribution. Samples for shelf life evaluation were aseptically packed in 4-oz HIPS/EVOH/PE cups using a Benco system. The PEF-treated samples were stable at 4 °C for the 8-week evaluation period. However, L. plantarum in the samples treated with PEF-only grew up to more than 10⁹ cfu/ml in 1 week at room temperature. PEF processing at 31.8 kV/cm for 45 As followed by a mild heat processing at 67.2 approximately 73.6 8C for 24 s resulted in a shelf stable product with an initial L. plantarum load of 3.7 x10³ cfu/ml. No L. plantarum 8014 recovered in the model salad dressing at room temperature for at least 1 year.