[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pollen tube germinates from pollen and, during its migration, it perceives and responds to guidance cues from maternal tissue and from the female gametophyte. The putative female cues have recently been identified, but how the pollen tube responds to these signals remains to be unveiled. In a genetic screen for male determinants of the pollen tube response, we identified the pollen defective in guidance1 (pod1) mutant, in which the pollen tubes fail to target the female gametophyte. POD1 encodes a conserved protein of unknown function and is essential for positioning and orienting the cell division plane during early embryo development. Here, we demonstrate that POD1 is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) luminal protein involved in ER protein retention. Further analysis shows that POD1 interacts with the Ca(2+) binding ER chaperone CALRETICULIN3 (CRT3), a protein in charge of folding of membrane receptors. We propose that POD1 modulates the activity of CRT3 or other ER resident factors to control the folding of proteins, such as membrane proteins in the ER. By this mechanism, POD1 may regulate the pollen tube response to signals from the female tissues during pollen tube guidance and early embryo patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana.
The Plant Cell 09/2011; 23(9):3288-302. DOI:10.1105/tpc.111.088914 · 9.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mitochondrial genes in Arabidopsis thaliana are transcribed by a small family of nuclear-encoded T3/T7 phage-type RNA polymerases (RPOTs). At least two nuclear-encoded RPOTs (RPOTm and RPOTmp) are located in mitochondria in A. thaliana. Their genetic roles are largely unknown. Here we report the characterization of novel mutations in the A. thaliana RPOTm gene. The mutations did not affect pollen formation, but significantly retarded the growth of the rpoTm mutant pollen tubes and had an impact on the fusion of the polar nuclei in the rpoTm mutant embryo sacs. Moreover, development of the rpoTm/- mutant embryo was arrested at the globular stage. The rpoTm rpoTmp double mutation could enhance the rpoTm mutant phenotype. Expression of RPOTmp under control of the RPOTm promoter could not complement the phenotype of the rpoTm mutations. All these data indicate that RPOTm is important for normal pollen tube growth, female gametogenesis and embryo development, and has distinct genetic and molecular roles in plant development, which cannot be replaced by RPOTmp.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In flowering plants, male gametes are delivered to female gametophytes by pollen tubes. Although it is important for sexual plant reproduction, little is known about the genetic mechanism that controls pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Here we report the identification and characterization of two novel mutants, gnom-like 2-1 (gnl2-1) and gnl2-2 in Arabidopsis thaliana, in which the pollen grains failed to germinate in vitro and in vivo. GNL2 encodes a protein homologous to the adenosine diphosphate-ribosylation factor-guanine nucleotide exchange factors, GNOM and GNL1 that are involved in endosomal recycling and endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi vesicular trafficking. It was prolifically expressed in pollen grains and pollen tubes. The results of the present study suggest that GNL2 plays an important role in pollen germination.