[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), play a paramount role in the central regulation of energy balance. Despite the substantial body of genetic evidence implicating BDNF- or TrkB-deficiency in human obesity, the critical brain region(s) contributing to the endogenous role of BDNF/TrkB signaling in metabolic control remain unknown.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amylin acts in the CNS to reduce feeding and body weight. Recently, the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a mesolimbic nucleus important for food intake and reward, was identified as a site-of-action mediating the anorectic effects of amylin. However, the long-term physiological relevance and mechanisms mediating the intake-suppressive effects of VTA amylin receptor activation are unknown. Data show that the core component of the amylin receptor, the calcitonin receptor (CTR), is expressed on VTA dopamine neurons and that activation of VTA amylin receptors reduces phasic dopamine in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcC). Suppression in NAcC dopamine mediates VTA amylin-induced hypophagia, as combined NAcC D1/D2 receptor agonists block the intake-suppressive effects of VTA amylin receptor activation. Knockdown of VTA CTR via AAV-shRNA resulted in hyperphagia and exacerbated body weight gain in rats maintained on high-fat diet. Collectively, findings show that VTA amylin receptor signaling controls energy balance by modulating mesolimbic dopamine signaling.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 18 July 2014; doi:10.1038/npp.2014.180.
Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 07/2014; 40(2). DOI:10.1038/npp.2014.180 · 7.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a known regulator of central metabolic signaling, and mice with whole brain-, leptin receptor (LepRb) expressing cell-, or proopiomelanocortin neuron-specific PTP1B-deficiency are lean, leptin hypersensitive, and display improved glucose homeostasis. However, whether the metabolic effects of central PTP1B-deficiency are due to action within the hypothalamus remains unclear. Moreover, whether or not these effects are exclusively due to enhanced leptin signaling is unknown. Here we report that mice with hypothalamic PTP1B-deficiency (Nkx2.1-PTP1B(-/-)) display decreased body weight and adiposity on high-fat diet with no associated improvements in glucose tolerance. Consistent with previous reports, we find that hypothalamic deletion of the LepRb in mice (Nkx2.1-LepRb(-/-)) results in extreme hyperphagia and obesity. Interestingly, deletion of hypothalamic PTP1B and LepRb (Nkx2.1-PTP1B(-/-):LepRb(-/-)) does not rescue the hyperphagia or obesity of Nkx2.1-LepRb(-/-) mice, suggesting that hypothalamic PTP1B contributes to the central control of energy balance through a leptin receptor-dependent pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors (GLP-1R) expressed in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) are physiologically required for the control of feeding. Recently, NTS GLP-1R-mediated suppression of feeding was shown to occur via a rapid PKA-induced suppression of AMPK and activation of MAPK signaling. Unknown are the additional intracellular signaling pathways that account for the long-term hypophagic effects of GLP-1R activation. As cAMP/PKA activity can promote PI3K-PIP3-dependent translocation of Akt to the plasma membrane, we hypothesize that hindbrain GLP-1R-mediated control of feeding involves a PI3K-Akt-dependent pathway. Importantly, the novel evidence presented here challenges the dogmatic view that PI3K phosphorylation results in an obligatory activation of Akt, and instead supports a growing body of literature showing that activation of cAMP/PKA can inhibit Akt phosphorylation at the plasma membrane. Behavioral data show that inhibition of hindbrain PI3K activity by 4(th) icv administration of LY-294002 (3.07µg) attenuated the food intake- and body weight-suppressive effects of 4th icv administration of the GLP-1R agonist exendin-4 (0.3µg) in rats. Hindbrain administration of triciribine (10µg), an inhibitor of PIP3-dependent translocation of Akt to the cell membrane, also attenuated the intake-suppressive effects of 4(th) icv exendin-4. Immunoblot analyses of ex-vivo NTS tissue lysates and in-vitro GLP-1R-expressing neurons (GT1-7) support the behavioral findings and show that GLP-1R activation decreases phosphorylation of Akt in a time-dependent fashion. Current data reveal the requirement of PI3K activation, PIP3-dependent translocation of Akt to the plasma membrane, and suppression in phosphorylation of membrane-bound Akt to mediate the food intake-suppressive effects of hindbrain GLP-1R activation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a key negative regulator of insulin signalling. Hepatic PTP1B deficiency, using the Alb-Cre promoter to drive Ptp1b deletion from birth in mice, improves glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of decreasing liver PTP1B levels in obese and insulin-resistant adult mice.
Inducible Ptp1b liver-specific knockout mice were generated using SA-Cre-ER (T2) mice crossed with Ptp1b floxed (Ptp1b (fl/fl)) mice. Mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks to induce obesity and insulin resistance. Tamoxifen was administered in the HFD to induce liver-specific deletion of Ptp1b (SA-Ptp1b (-/-) mice). Body weight, glucose homeostasis, lipid homeostasis, serum adipokines, insulin signalling and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were examined.
Despite no significant change in body weight relative to HFD-fed Ptp1b (fl/fl) control mice, HFD-fed SA-Ptp1b (-/-) mice exhibited a reversal of glucose intolerance as determined by improved glucose and pyruvate tolerance tests, decreased fed and fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, lower HOMA of insulin resistance, circulating leptin, serum and liver triacylglycerols, serum NEFA and decreased HFD-induced ER stress. This was associated with decreased glycogen synthase, eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2α kinase 3, eukaryotic initiation factor 2α and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 2 phosphorylation, and decreased expression of Pepck.
Inducible liver-specific PTP1B knockdown reverses glucose intolerance and improves lipid homeostasis in HFD-fed obese and insulin-resistant adult mice. This suggests that knockdown of liver PTP1B in individuals who are already obese/insulin resistant may have relatively rapid, beneficial therapeutic effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability of amylin, a pancreatic β-cell-derived neuropeptide, to promote negative energy balance has been ascribed to neural activation at the area postrema. However, despite amylin binding throughout the brain, the possible role of amylin signaling at other nuclei in the control of food intake has been largely neglected. We show that mRNA for all components of the amylin receptor complex is expressed in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a mesolimbic structure mediating food intake and reward. Direct activation of VTA amylin receptors reduces intake of chow and palatable sucrose solution in rats. This effect is mediated by reductions in meal size and is not due to nausea/malaise or prolonged suppression of locomotor activity. VTA amylin receptor activation also reduces sucrose self-administration on a progressive ratio schedule. Finally, antagonist studies provide novel evidence that VTA amylin receptor blockade increases food intake and attenuates the intake-suppressive effects of a peripherally administered amylin analog, suggesting that amylin receptor signaling in the VTA is physiologically relevant for food intake control and potentially clinically relevant for the treatment of obesity.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 8 March 2013; doi:10.1038/npp.2013.66.
Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 03/2013; 38(9). DOI:10.1038/npp.2013.66 · 7.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ER-bound PTP1B is expressed in hippocampal neurons, and accumulates among neurite contacts. PTP1B dephosphorylates ß-catenin in N-cadherin complexes ensuring cell-cell adhesion. Here we show that endogenous PTP1B, as well as expressed GFP-PTP1B, are present in dendritic spines of hippocampal neurons in culture. GFP-PTP1B overexpression does not affect filopodial density or length. In contrast, impairment of PTP1B function or genetic PTP1B-deficiency leads to increased filopodia-like dendritic spines and a reduction in mushroom-like spines, while spine density is unaffected. These morphological alterations are accompanied by a disorganization of pre- and post-synapses, as judged by decreased clustering of synapsin-1 and PSD-95, and suggest a dynamic synaptic phenotype. Notably, levels of ß-catenin-Tyr-654 phosphorylation increased ∼5-fold in the hippocampus of adult PTP1B(-/-) (KO) mice compared to wild type (WT) mice and this was accompanied by a reduction in the amount of ß-catenin associated with N-cadherin. To determine whether PTP1B-deficiency alters learning and memory, we generated mice lacking PTP1B in the hippocampus and cortex (PTP1B(fl/fl)-Emx1-Cre). PTP1B(fl/fl)-Emx1-Cre mice displayed improved performance in the Barnes maze (decreased time to find and enter target hole), utilized a more efficient strategy (cued), and had better recall compared to WT controls. Our results implicate PTP1B in structural plasticity within the hippocampus, likely through modulation of N-cadherin function by ensuring dephosphorylation of ß-catenin on Tyr-654. Disruption of hippocampal PTP1B function or expression leads to elongation of dendritic filopodia and improved learning and memory, demonstrating an exciting novel role for this phosphatase.
PLoS ONE 07/2012; 7(7):e41536. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0041536 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a ubiquitously expressed tyrosine phosphatase implicated in the negative regulation of leptin and insulin receptor signaling. PTP1B(-/-) mice possess a lean metabolic phenotype attributed at least partially to improved hypothalamic leptin sensitivity. Interestingly, mice lacking both leptin and PTP1B (ob/ob:PTP1B(-/-)) have reduced body weight compared with mice lacking leptin only, suggesting that PTP1B may have important leptin-independent metabolic effects. We generated mice with PTP1B deficiency specifically in leptin receptor (LepRb)-expressing neurons (LepRb-PTP1B(-/-)) and compared them with LepRb-Cre-only wild-type (WT) controls and global PTP1B(-/-) mice. Consistent with PTP1B's role as a negative regulator of leptin signaling, our results show that LepRb-PTP1B(-/-) mice are leptin hypersensitive and have significantly reduced body weight when maintained on chow or high-fat diet (HFD) compared with WT controls. LepRb-PTP1B(-/-) mice have a significant decrease in adiposity on HFD compared with controls. Notably, the extent of attenuated body weight gain on HFD, as well as the extent of leptin hypersensitivity, is similar between LepRb-PTP1B(-/-) mice and global PTP1B(-/-) mice. Overall, these results demonstrate that PTP1B deficiency in LepRb-expressing neurons results in reduced body weight and adiposity compared with WT controls and likely underlies the improved metabolic phenotype of global and brain-specific PTP1B-deficient models. Subtle phenotypic differences between LepRb-PTP1B(-/-) and global PTP1B(-/-) mice, however, suggest that PTP1B independent of leptin signaling may also contribute to energy balance in mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leptin regulates energy balance through central circuits that control food intake and energy expenditure, including proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. POMC neuron-specific deletion of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) (Ptpn1(loxP/loxP) POMC-Cre), a negative regulator of CNS leptin signaling, results in resistance to diet-induced obesity and improved peripheral leptin sensitivity in mice, thus establishing PTP1B as an important component of POMC neuron regulation of energy balance. POMC neurons are expressed in the pituitary, the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH), and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in the hindbrain, and it is unknown how each population might contribute to the phenotype of POMC-Ptp1b(-/-) mice. It is also unknown whether improved leptin sensitivity in POMC-Ptp1b(-/-) mice involves altered melanocortin receptor signaling. Therefore, we examined the effects of hindbrain administration (4th ventricle) of leptin (1.5, 3, and 6 μg) or the melanocortin 3/4R agonist melanotan II (0.1 and 0.2 nmol) in POMC-Ptp1b(-/-) (KO) and control PTP1B(fl/fl) (WT) mice on food intake, body weight, spontaneous physical activity (SPA), and core temperature (T(C)). The results show that KO mice were hypersensitive to hindbrain leptin- and MTII-induced food intake and body weight suppression and SPA compared with WT mice. Greater increases in leptin- but not MTII-induced T(C) were also observed in KO vs. WT animals. In addition, KO mice displayed elevated hindbrain and hypothalamic MC4R mRNA expression. These studies are the first to show that hindbrain administration of leptin or a melanocortin receptor agonist alters energy balance in mice likely via participation of hindbrain POMC neurons.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is associated with induction of the ER (endoplasmic reticulum)-stress response signalling and insulin resistance. PTP1B (protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B) is a major regulator of adiposity and insulin sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of L-PTP1B (liver-specific PTP1B) in chronically HFD (high-fat diet) and pharmacologically induced (tunicamycin and thapsigargin) ER-stress response signalling in vitro and in vivo. We assessed the effects of ER-stress response induction on hepatic PTP1B expression, and consequences of hepatic-PTP1B deficiency, in cells and mouse liver, on components of ER-stress response signalling. We found that PTP1B protein and mRNA expression levels were up-regulated in response to acute and/or chronic ER stress, in vitro and in vivo. Silencing PTP1B in hepatic cell lines or mouse liver (L-PTP1B(-/-)) protected against induction of pharmacologically induced and/or obesity-induced ER stress. The HFD-induced increase in CHOP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein) and BIP (binding immunoglobulin protein) mRNA levels were partially inhibited, whereas ATF4 (activated transcription factor 4), GADD34 (growth-arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 34), GRP94 (glucose-regulated protein 94), ERDJ4 (ER-localized DnaJ homologue) mRNAs and ATF6 protein cleavage were completely suppressed in L-PTP1B(-/-) mice relative to control littermates. L-PTP1B(-/-) mice also had increased nuclear translocation of spliced XBP-1 (X box-binding protein-1) via increased p85α binding. We demonstrate that the ER-stress response and L-PTP1B expression are interlinked in obesity- and pharmacologically induced ER stress and this may be one of the mechanisms behind improved insulin sensitivity and lower lipid accumulation in L-PTP1B(-/-) mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adipose tissue-derived hormone leptin regulates energy balance through catabolic effects on central circuits, including proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. Leptin activation of POMC neurons increases thermogenesis and locomotor activity. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is an important negative regulator of leptin signaling. POMC neuron-specific deletion of PTP1B in mice results in reduced high-fat diet-induced body weight and adiposity gain due to increased energy expenditure and greater leptin sensitivity. Mice lacking the leptin gene (ob/ob mice) are hypothermic and cold intolerant, whereas leptin delivery to ob/ob mice induces thermogenesis via increased sympathetic activity to brown adipose tissue (BAT). Here, we examined whether POMC PTP1B mediates the thermoregulatory response of CNS leptin signaling by evaluating food intake, body weight, core temperature (T(C)), and spontaneous physical activity (SPA) in response to either exogenous leptin or 4-day cold exposure (4°C) in male POMC-Ptp1b-deficient mice compared with wild-type controls. POMC-Ptp1b(-/-) mice were hypersensitive to leptin-induced food intake and body weight suppression compared with wild types, yet they displayed similar leptin-induced increases in T(C). Interestingly, POMC-Ptp1b(-/-) mice had increased BAT weight and elevated plasma triiodothyronine (T(3)) levels in response to a 4-day cold challenge, as well as reduced SPA 24 h after cold exposure, relative to controls. These data show that PTP1B in POMC neurons plays a role in short-term cold-induced reduction of SPA and may influence cold-induced thermogenesis via enhanced activation of the thyroid axis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation within the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) suppresses food intake and body weight (BW), but the intracellular signals mediating these effects are unknown. Here, hindbrain (fourth i.c.v.) GLP-1R activation by Exendin-4 (Ex-4) increased PKA and MAPK activity and decreased phosphorylation of AMPK in NTS. PKA and MAPK signaling contribute to food intake and BW suppression by Ex-4, as inhibitors RpcAMP and U0126 (fourth i.c.v.), respectively, attenuated Ex-4's effects. Hindbrain GLP-1R activation inhibited feeding by reducing meal number, not meal size. This effect was attenuated with stimulation of AMPK activity by AICAR (fourth i.c.v.). The PKA, MAPK, and AMPK signaling responses by Ex-4 were present in immortalized GLP-1R-expressing neurons (GT1-7). In conclusion, hindbrain GLP-1R activation suppresses food intake and BW through coordinated PKA-mediated suppression of AMPK and activation of MAPK. Pharmacotherapies targeting these signaling pathways, which mediate intake-suppressive effects of CNS GLP-1R activation, may prove efficacious in treating obesity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2) have been shown in mice to regulate metabolism via the central nervous system, but the specific neurons mediating these effects are unknown. Here, we have shown that proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neuron-specific deficiency in PTP1B or SHP2 in mice results in reciprocal effects on weight gain, adiposity, and energy balance induced by high-fat diet. Mice with POMC neuron-specific deletion of the gene encoding PTP1B (referred to herein as POMC-Ptp1b-/- mice) had reduced adiposity, improved leptin sensitivity, and increased energy expenditure compared with wild-type mice, whereas mice with POMC neuron-specific deletion of the gene encoding SHP2 (referred to herein as POMC-Shp2-/- mice) had elevated adiposity, decreased leptin sensitivity, and reduced energy expenditure. POMC-Ptp1b-/- mice showed substantially improved glucose homeostasis on a high-fat diet, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies revealed that insulin sensitivity in these mice was improved on a standard chow diet in the absence of any weight difference. In contrast, POMC-Shp2-/- mice displayed impaired glucose tolerance only secondary to their increased weight gain. Interestingly, hypothalamic Pomc mRNA and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alphaMSH) peptide levels were markedly reduced in POMC-Shp2-/- mice. These studies implicate PTP1B and SHP2 as important components of POMC neuron regulation of energy balance and point to what we believe to be a novel role for SHP2 in the normal function of the melanocortin system.
The Journal of clinical investigation 02/2010; 120(3):720-34. DOI:10.1172/JCI39620 · 13.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B is a negative regulator of insulin signaling; consequently, mice deficient in PTP1B are hypersensitive to insulin. Because PTP1B(-/-) mice have diminished fat stores, the extent to which PTP1B directly regulates glucose homeostasis is unclear. Previously, we showed that brain-specific PTP1B(-/-) mice are protected against high-fat diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance, whereas muscle-specific PTP1B(-/-) mice have increased insulin sensitivity independent of changes in adiposity. Here we studied the role of liver PTP1B in glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism.
We analyzed body mass/adiposity, insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and lipid metabolism in liver-specific PTP1B(-/-) and PTP1Bfl/fl control mice, fed a chow or high-fat diet.
Compared with normal littermates, liver-specific PTP1B(-/-) mice exhibit improved glucose homeostasis and lipid profiles, independent of changes in adiposity. Liver-specific PTP1B(-/-) mice have increased hepatic insulin signaling, decreased expression of gluconeogenic genes PEPCK and G-6-Pase, enhanced insulin-induced suppression of hepatic glucose production, and improved glucose tolerance. Liver-specific PTP1B(-/-) mice exhibit decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels and diminished expression of lipogenic genes SREBPs, FAS, and ACC. Liver-specific PTP1B deletion also protects against high-fat diet-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress response in vivo, as evidenced by decreased phosphorylation of p38MAPK, JNK, PERK, and eIF2alpha and lower expression of the transcription factors C/EBP homologous protein and spliced X box-binding protein 1.
Liver PTP1B plays an important role in glucose and lipid metabolism, independent of alterations in adiposity. Inhibition of PTP1B in peripheral tissues may be useful for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and reduction of cardiovascular risk in addition to diabetes.