[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Study objectives:
To evaluate the effects of single doses of gabapentin 250 and 500 mg on polysomnographic (PSG) and participant-reported sleep measures in a 5-h phase advance insomnia model.
Adults reporting occasional disturbed sleep received gabapentin 500 mg (n = 125), 250 mg (n = 125), or placebo (n = 127) 30 min prior to bedtime and were in bed from 17:00 to 01:00, ∼5 h before their habitual bedtime. Sleep was assessed by PSG, post-sleep questionnaire, and the Karolinska Sleep Diary (KSD). Next-day residual effects (Digit Symbol Substitution Test [DSST] and Stanford Sleepiness Scale [SSS]) and tolerability were assessed.
Demographics were comparable among groups. Among PSG endpoints, wake after sleep onset (primary endpoint) (135.7 [placebo], 100.7 [250 mg], and 73.2 [500 mg] min) was significantly lower and total sleep time (TST) (311.4, 356.5, and 378.7 min) significantly greater in both gabapentin groups versus placebo. Latency to persistent sleep was not significantly different among groups. Percent slow wave sleep (12.6%, 15.4%, and 17.0%, respectively) was significantly greater and percent stage 1 (15.1%, 11.8%, and 10.8%, respectively) significantly lower relative to placebo. Gabapentin was associated with significantly higher values of KSD Sleep Quality Index and reported TST versus placebo; no other reported outcomes were significant. Neither gabapentin dose produced evidence of next-day residual effects as measured by DSST and SSS. Adverse events were infrequent (< 5%).
Participants with occasional disturbed sleep treated with gabapentin showed significantly longer sleep duration and greater depth (versus placebo) in response to a phase advance manipulation known to disrupt sleep maintenance.
Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 09/2014; 10(10). DOI:10.5664/jcsm.4110 · 3.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine whether treatment with armodafinil for 6 weeks affected patient-reported overall functioning and daily quality of life compared with placebo in patients with excessive sleepiness associated with shift work disorder.Method: This 6-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was conducted in 45 sleep centers across the United States between February and October 2010. Patients included in the study were 18 to 65 years of age and diagnosed with excessive sleepiness associated with shift work disorder on the basis of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders: Diagnostic and Coding Manual, Second Edition and DSM-IV-TR criteria. These patients also experienced late-in-shift sleepiness between 4 AM and 8 AM (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale score ≥ 6) and were functionally impaired (Global Assessment of Functioning score < 70). Patients were administered 150 mg of armodafinil or placebo on nights worked, and efficacy measures included changes in patient-reported overall functioning (modified Sheehan Disability Scale [SDS-M]) and daily quality of life (10-question Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire [FOSQ-10]).Results: Patients treated with armodafinil had significantly greater improvement in SDS-M composite scores at final visit (last observation carried forward) (-6.8 vs -4.5, respectively, P = .0027) than those receiving placebo. Although the armodafinil group, compared to the placebo group, showed a greater improvement in total FOSQ-10 score from baseline to final visit (+3.4 vs +2.7, respectively, P = .0775), a statistically significant improvement was observed only at week 6 (+3.6 vs +2.7, respectively, P = .0351).Conclusions: These findings are consistent with our previous report on clinician-rated measures of efficacy by demonstrating that armodafinil improves patient-rated functioning in patients with shift work disorder. Additionally, the current findings show for the first time that armodafinil may have benefits on quality of life after 6 weeks of treatment.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01080807.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the effect of armodafinil on late-in-shift clinical condition, wakefulness, and overall functioning of patients with shift work disorder.
Patients with clinically diagnosed shift work disorder received armodafinil or placebo on nights worked for 6 weeks. Patients included in the study experienced late-in-shift sleepiness between 4 AM and 8 AM (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale ≥6) and were functionally impaired (Global Assessment of Functioning <70). Efficacy was determined by improvements in clinical condition (Clinical Global Impression-Change), late-in-the-shift Karolinska Sleepiness Scale score, and overall Global Assessment of Functioning score. Tolerability was assessed.
Patients receiving armodafinil showed significant improvements in late-in-shift clinical condition, wakefulness, and global functioning, compared to placebo at final visit. Armodafinil was generally well tolerated.
Armodafinil improved clinical condition and wakefulness late in the night shift of patients with shift work disorder. Overall patient functioning was also improved.
Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 11/2011; 53(12):1460-5. DOI:10.1097/JOM.0b013e318237a17e · 1.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insomnia is a condition affecting 10% to 15% of the adult population and is characterized by difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, or nonrestorative sleep, accompanied by daytime impairment or distress. This study evaluates APD125, a selective inverse agonist of the 5-HT(2A) receptor, for treatment of chronic insomnia, with particular emphasis on sleep maintenance. In phase 1 studies, APD125 improved sleep maintenance and was well tolerated.
Adult subjects (n=173) with DSM-IV defined primary insomnia were randomized into a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-way crossover study to compare 2 doses of APD125 (10 mg and 40 mg) with placebo. Each treatment period was 7 days with a 7- to 9-day washout period between treatments. Polysomnographic recordings were performed at the initial 2 screening nights and at nights (N) 1/2 and N 6/7 of each treatment period.
APD125 was associated with significant improvements in key sleep maintenance parameters measured by PSG. Wake time after sleep onset decreased (SEM) by 52.5 (3.2) min (10 mg) and 53.5 (3.5) min (40 mg) from baseline to N 1/2 vs. 37.8 (3.4) min for placebo, (P < 0.0001 for both doses vs. placebo), and by 51.7 (3.4) min (P = 0.01) and 48.0 (3.6) min (P = 0.2) at N 6/7 vs. 44.0 (3.8) min for placebo. Significant APD125 effects on wake time during sleep were also seen (P < 0.0001 N 1/2, P < 0.001 N 6/7). The number of arousals and number of awakenings decreased significantly with APD125 treatment compared to placebo. Slow wave sleep showed a statistically significant dose-dependent increase. There was no significant decrease in latency to persistent sleep. No serious adverse events were reported, and no meaningful differences in adverse event profiles were observed between either dose of APD125 and placebo. APD125 was not associated with next-day psychomotor impairment as measured by Digit Span, Digit Symbol Copy, and Digit Symbol Coding Tests.
APD125 produced statistically significant improvements in objective parameters of sleep maintenance and sleep consolidation and was well tolerated in adults with primary chronic insomnia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of doxepin 1, 3, and 6 mg in insomnia patients.
Adults (18-64 y) with chronic primary insomnia (DSM-IV) were randomly assigned to one of four sequences of 1 mg, 3 mg, and 6 mg of doxepin, and placebo in a crossover study. Treatment periods consisted of 2 polysomnographic assessment nights with a 5-day or 12-day drug-free interval between periods. Efficacy was assessed using polysomnography (PSG) and patient-reported measures. Safety analyses included measures of residual sedation and adverse events.
Sixty-seven patients were randomized. Wake time during sleep, the a priori defined primary endpoint, was statistically significantly improved at the doxepin 3 mg and 6 mg doses versus placebo. All three doses had statistically significant improvements versus placebo for PSG-defined wake after sleep onset, total sleep time, and overall sleep efficiency (SE). SE in the final third-of-the-night also demonstrated statistically significant improvement at all doses. The doxepin 6 mg dose significantly reduced subjective latency to sleep onset. All three doxepin doses had a safety profile comparable to placebo. There were no statistically significant differences in next-day residual sedation, and sleep architecture was generally clinically preserved.
In adults with primary insomnia, doxepin 1 mg, 3 mg, and 6 mg was well-tolerated and produced improvement in objective and subjective sleep maintenance and duration endpoints that persisted into the final hour of the night. The side-effect profile was comparable to placebo, with no reported anticholinergic effects, no memory impairment, and no significant hangover/next-day residual effects. These data demonstrate that doxepin 1 mg, 3 mg, and 6 mg is efficacious in improving the sleep of patients with chronic primary insomnia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the efficacy and safety of ramelteon, a selective melatonin MT1/MT2-receptor agonist, for insomnia treatment in older adults.
In a randomized, 9-week, 3-period crossover trial conducted at 17 sleep centers, older adults (N = 100) with chronic primary insomnia (37 men, 63 women; mean age [range], 70.7 [65-83] years) were administered placebo, ramelteon 4 mg, and ramelteon 8 mg in three treatment phases for two consecutive nights. Each phase was separated by 5- to 12-day washout periods. Sleep was monitored via polysomnography. Subjective sleep parameters, using a Postsleep Questionnaire, were recorded, and residual pharmacologic effects were assessed.
Statistically significant reductions in latency to persistent sleep were observed with both ramelteon 4 mg and 8 mg compared to placebo (28.7 min vs. 38.4 min, p < 0.001; 30.8 min vs. 38.4 min, p = 0.005, respectively). Total sleep time (p = 0.036 and p = 0.007, respectively) and sleep efficiency (p = 0.037 and p = 0.007, respectively) were also significantly improved with ramelteon 4 mg and 8 mg compared to placebo. Statistically significant reductions in subjective sleep latency on a Postsleep Questionnaire were reported with ramelteon 4 mg versus placebo (p = 0.037), but not ramelteon 8 mg (p = 0.120); no significant differences on other subjective sleep assessments were reported. A lack of power limits interpretation of self-reported sleep parameters. Incidences of adverse events considered treatment related were placebo (7%), ramelteon 4 mg (11%), and ramelteon 8 mg (5%). No residual pharmacologic effects were observed via Digit Symbol Substitution Test, memory recall tests (immediate and delayed), visual analog scales (feelings and mood), and Postsleep Questionnaire (level of alertness and ability to concentrate).
In older adults with chronic primary insomnia, ramelteon produced significant reductions in latency to persistent sleep and increases in total sleep time and sleep efficacy, and showed no evidence of adverse next-day psychomotor or cognitive effects.
Current Medical Research and Opinion 06/2007; 23(5):1005-14. DOI:10.1185/030079907X178874 · 2.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Indiplon is a nonbenzodiazepine GABA potentiator, which exhibits pharmacologic selectivity for GABA(A) receptors containing the alpha1 subunit. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a 15-mg nightly dose of modified-release indiplon tablets in elderly patients with primary insomnia characterized by sleep-maintenance difficulties.
Two hundred twenty-nine elderly patients, aged 65 to 85 years, who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for primary insomnia were randomly assigned to 2 weeks of nightly treatment with either indiplon, 15 mg, or placebo in a double-blind, parallel-group design. Daily sleep diaries were completed to collect patient reports of subjective total sleep time, wake time after sleep onset, number of awakenings after sleep-onset, latency to sleep onset, and sleep quality. Patient global impression ratings of various parameters of sleep were assessed on a weekly basis.
The least square mean total sleep time was significantly improved with indiplon versus placebo at week 1 (377 +/- 4 min vs. 328 +/- 4 min; p < .0001) and week 2 (373 +/- 5 min vs. 337 +/- 5 min; p < .0001). Indiplon also significantly improved subjective wake after sleep onset, subjective number of awakenings after sleep onset, subjective sleep-onset latency, sleep quality, and patient global impression ratings of sleep at both weeks 1 and 2. The number and severity of adverse events and rates of discontinuation due to adverse effects were comparable in the indiplon and placebo groups.
In elderly patients with primary insomnia characterized by sleep-maintenance difficulty, indiplon, 15 mg, was well tolerated and significantly improved all patient-reported measures of sleep during 2 weeks of treatment.
Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 07/2006; 2(3):309-15. · 3.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the efficacy and safety of ramelteon, a selective MT(1)/MT(2) receptor agonist, for chronic insomnia treatment.
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 35-night outpatient trial with weekly clinic visits at multiple centers. Patients include older adults (>or=65 years; N=829) with chronic insomnia. Placebo, ramelteon 4mg, or ramelteon 8mg were taken nightly for five weeks, and patient-reported sleep data were collected using sleep diaries. Primary efficacy was sleep latency at week 1. Sustained efficacy was examined at weeks 3 and 5. Rebound insomnia and withdrawal effects were evaluated during a 7-day placebo run-out.
Both doses of ramelteon produced statistically significant reductions in sleep latency vs. placebo at week 1 (ramelteon 4mg: 70.2 vs. 78.5min, P=.008; ramelteon 8mg: 70.2 vs. 78.5 min, P=.008). Patients continued to report reduced sleep latency at week 3 with ramelteon 8mg (60.3 vs. 69.3min, P=.003), and at week 5 with ramelteon 4 mg (63.4 vs. 70.6 min, P=.028) and ramelteon 8 mg (57.7 vs. 70.6 min; P<.001). Statistically significant increases in total sleep time were observed with ramelteon 4 mg at week 1 (324.6 vs. 313.9 min, P=.004) and week 3 (336.0 vs. 324.3min, P=.007) compared with placebo. There was no evidence of significant rebound insomnia or withdrawal effects following treatment discontinuation. The incidence of adverse events was similar among all treatment groups; most were mild or moderate.
In older adults with chronic insomnia, ramelteon significantly reduced patient reports of sleep latency over five weeks of treatment with no significant rebound insomnia or withdrawal effects.
Sleep Medicine 07/2006; 7(4):312-8. DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2006.01.003 · 3.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and dose response of Ramelteon, a novel highly selective MT1/MT2 receptor agonist, in patients with chronic primary insomnia.
A randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, five-period crossover study design was performed. A total of 107 patients, aged 18-64 years, were randomized into a dosing sequence that included 4, 8, 16, and 32 mg of Ramelteon and placebo. Patients received all five treatments, with a 5- to 12-day washout period between treatments, and served as their own controls. Medication was administered 30 min before habitual bedtime and polysomnographic monitoring. Next-day residual effects were assessed with two visual analog scales (mood and feeling), digit symbol substitution test (DSST), word-list memory tests (immediate recall and delayed recall), and a post-sleep questionnaire that ascertained patients' alertness and ability to concentrate.
All tested doses of Ramelteon resulted in statistically significant reductions in latency to persistent sleep (LPS) and increases in total sleep time (TST). No next-day residual effects were apparent at any dose, as compared with placebo. There were no differences in the number or type of adverse events between any active treatment and placebo group. The most commonly reported adverse events were headache, somnolence, and sore throat.
Ramelteon demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in LPS and a statistically significant increase in TST, with no apparent next-day residual effects, in patients with chronic primary insomnia.
Sleep Medicine 02/2006; 7(1):17-24. DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2005.09.004 · 3.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evaluate the efficacy of eszopiclone in primary insomnia.
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter in outpatient setting with weekly visits.
Two-hundred thirty one men and women aged 65 to 85 years (mean age 72.3 years) with primary insomnia, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition.
Eszopiclone 1 mg (n = 72), eszopiclone 2 mg (n = 79), or placebo (n = 80) nightly for 2 weeks.
Efficacy was assessed using an interactive voice response system. Following the predefined hierarchical testing strategy, the eszopiclone 2-mg group had a significantly shorter sleep latency compared with placebo over the double-blind period (P = .0034). The eszopiclone 2-mg group had significantly longer total sleep time (P = .0003) and eszopiclone 1-mg group had significantly shorter sleep latency (P < or = .012) compared with placebo. The eszopiclone 1-mg group was not significantly different from placebo on total sleep time or any other secondary efficacy endpoint. Secondary analyses indicated that the eszopiclone 2-mg group had significantly less wake after sleep onset; significantly fewer and shorter in duration daytime naps; and significantly higher ratings of sleep quality and depth, daytime alertness, and sense of physical well-being compared with placebo (P < .05). Eszopiclone was well tolerated. The most frequent treatment-related adverse event was unpleasant taste.
Nightly treatment with eszopiclone 1 mg effectively induced sleep, while the 2-mg dose was effective in inducing and maintaining sleep. Eszopiclone was well tolerated in elderly patients with primary insomnia, and the sleep efficacy was accompanied by significantly less napping and significantly higher ratings of daytime alertness, sense of physical well-being, and several quality-of-life parameters at the higher dose.