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Publications (3)41.79 Total impact

  • The Lancet 08/2006; 368(9531):197. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Malaria transmission was controlled elsewhere in Brazil by 1980, but in the Amazon Basin cases increased steadily until 1989, to almost half a million a year and the coefficient of mortality quadrupled in 1977-1988. The government's malaria control program almost collapsed financially in 1987-1989 and underwent a turbulent reorganization in 1991-1993. A World Bank project supported the program from late 1989 to mid-1996, and in 1992-1993, with help from the Pan American Health Organization, facilitated a change toward earlier and more aggressive case treatment and more concentrated vector control. The epidemic stopped expanding in 1990-1991 and reversed in 1992-1996. The total cost of the program from 1989 through mid-1996 was US$616 million: US$526 million for prevention and US$90 million for treatment. Compared to what would have happened in the absence of the program, nearly two million cases of malaria and 231,000 deaths were prevented; the lives saved were due almost equally to preventing infection and to case treatment. Converting the savings in lives and in morbidity into Disability-Adjusted Life Years yields almost nine million DALYs, 5.1 million from treatment and 3.9 million from prevention. Nearly all the gain came from controlling deaths and therefore from controlling falciparum. The overall cost-effectiveness was US$2672 per life saved or US$69 per DALY, which is low compared to most previous estimates and compares favorably to many other disease control interventions. Contrary to much previous experience, case treatment appears more cost-effective than vector control, particularly where falciparum is prevalent and unfocussed insecticide spraying is relatively ineffective. Halting the epidemic by better targeted vector control and emphasizing treatment paid off in much reduced mortality from malaria and in significantly lower costs per life saved.
    Social Science [?] Medicine 12/1999; 49(10):1385-99. · 2.73 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Malaria transmission was controlled elsewhere in Brazil by 1980, but in the Amazon Basin cases increased steadily until 1989, to almost half a million a year and the coefficient of mortality quadrupled in 1977–1988. The government's malaria control program almost collapsed financially in 1987–1989 and underwent a turbulent reorganization in 1991–1993. A World Bank project supported the program from late 1989 to mid-1996, and in 1992–1993, with help from the Pan American Health Organization, facilitated a change toward earlier and more aggressive case treatment and more concentrated vector control. The epidemic stopped expanding in 1990–1991 and reversed in 1992–1996. The total cost of the program from 1989 through mid-1996 was US$616 million: US$526 million for prevention and US$90 million for treatment. Compared to what would have happened in the absence of the program, nearly two million cases of malaria and 231,000 deaths were prevented; the lives saved were due almost equally to preventing infection and to case treatment. Converting the savings in lives and in morbidity into Disability-Adjusted Life Years yields almost nine million DALYs, 5.1 million from treatment and 3.9 million from prevention. Nearly all the gain came from controlling deaths and therefore from controlling falciparum. The overall cost-effectiveness was US$2672 per life saved or US$69 per DALY, which is low compared to most previous estimates and compares favorably to many other disease control interventions. Contrary to much previous experience, case treatment appears more cost-effective than vector control, particularly where falciparum is prevalent and unfocussed insecticide spraying is relatively ineffective. Halting the epidemic by better targeted vector control and emphasizing treatment paid off in much reduced mortality from malaria and in significantly lower costs per life saved.
    Social Science & Medicine - SOC SCI MED. 01/1999; 49(10):1385-1399.