[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Manual harvesting is usually done after to sugar cane burning which is responsible for seasonal emission of air pollutants in Brazil and it is believed to be responsible for deleterious health effects in exposed populations. The mutagenic potential of sugar cane burning harvesting particulate and particle surrogates of residual oil fly ash (ROFA) were evaluated in assays measuring micronuclei (MN) in the pollen mother cells of Tradescantia pallida (TRAD-MN). Micronuclei frequencies in TRAD-MN to sugar cane burning residues (SCBR) at doses 0.3 and 0.03 mg/mL were respectively 2.18 ± 0.35 and 5.53 ± 1.04, whereas to ROFA from incinerator and ROFA from an electrostatic precipitator installed in one of the chimneys of a steel plant, MN frequencies were, respectively, 3.43 ± 0.7 and 4.90 ± 1.07. Significant differences were detected among the groups (p < 0.001), demonstrating that SCBR was at least as genotoxic as the fossil fuel derived particles. The results suggest that the burning process to harvest sugar cane should be better controlled.
Journal of the Brazilian Society of Ecotoxicology. 01/2012; 7:1-7.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 2003, a bus strike paralyzed the fleet of buses in Sao Paulo, Brazil during 3 days, from 6 to 8 of April, the complete interruption of services being achieved on the 7th. We evaluated the effect of the absence of this source of pollution on the composition, mutagenicity, and toxicity of the fine particulate material collected during this period. Particles were sampled in glass fiber filters on days 7 and 15 of April of 2003 (strike and nonstrike days, respectively), using a high-volume sampler. Trace element determinations (As, Br, Co, Cl, Fe, La, Mn, Sb, Sc, and Th) of particulate material samples were carried out by neutron activation analysis. Sulfur determination was done by X-ray fluorescence analysis. The ratio between nonstrike/strike concentrations of hydrocarbons associated with automotive emissions (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylenes; BTEX) was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Mutagenesis of testing solutions was determined by means of the Tradescantia micronucleus assay in early tetrads of Tradescantia pallida. The inhibition of mitosis of the cells of the primary meristema of the root tips of Allium cepa was used as an index of the toxicity. Fine particle trace element contents were lower during the strike. The concentrations of sulfur and BTEX were 50% and 39.3% lower, respectively, on the strike day. A significant (P=0.038) reduction of micronuclei induced by fine particles sampled during the strike was observed. No effect of the strike on toxicity was detected. These results indicate that a program aiming to reduce emissions of the bus fleet in our town may impact positively the air quality by reducing the mutagenic potential of ambient particles.
Environmental Research 06/2005; 98(1):1-7. · 3.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We used a short-term bioassay--the Tradescantia stamen-hair assay (TSH)--to evaluate the toxicity of ambient particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microm sampled in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. Two exposure locations were selected: downtown São Paulo and Caucaia do Alto (mean PM10 levels of 64 and 14 microg/m3, respectively). The experiment was conducted July 11-August 15, 2002, and toxicity was assessed with the Tradescantia stamen-hair assay (TSH) employing clone KU-20 of Tradescantia. Four experimental groups were defined: inflorescences collected from plants cultivated in Caucaia, inflorescences collected from plants cultivated in São Paulo (to establish the baseline level of mutations in stamen hairs at both sites), inflorescences collected from plants cultivated in Caucaia and brought to São Paulo and maintained in chambers that received ambient air, and inflorescences collected from plants cultivated in Caucaia and brought to São Paulo and maintained in chambers that received air passed through a particle filter. The frequency of mutations observed in Caucaia was significantly lower than that in the remaining groups. Flower cuttings brought from Caucaia and receiving ambient air of São Paulo showed a rate of mutations similar to that of plants cultivated in São Paulo. Filtering particles from the air reduced the rate of mutation but not sufficiently to reach the level of that in Caucaia. The frequency of mutations observed in São Paulo was significantly associated with PM10 levels on the fifth day before the opening of the flowers (r = 0.47, p = 0.025). Our results indicate that urban particles play a significant role in the development of pollution-dependent mutations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present work was designed to determine the potential genotoxicity at the vicinity of a solid waste incinerator in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, using the Tradescantia stamen-hair bioassay. Experiments were carried out between December 1998 and April 1999 in four regions (40 pots of plants per site) selected on the basis of their pollution levels predicted by theoretical modeling of the dispersion of the incinerator's plume. The exposure sites were defined as follows: highest level (incinerator); a high level (museum) located 1.5 km from the emission point; a moderate level (school, at a distance of 3.5 km from the incinerator); and a control (at Jaguariúna countryside). The difference in genotoxicity among the groups was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The frequency of mutations observed in the countryside was significantly lower [2.25 +/- 1.55, mean +/- SD (standard deviation)] than that of the sites close to the incinerator. The frequency of mutations measured at the school (3.70 +/- 1.36) was significantly lower than that measured at both the museum (4.89 +/- 1.12) and the incinerator (5.69 +/- 1.34). In conclusion, we found a positive correlation between the spatial distribution of the emissions of the incinerator located in an urban area and the mutagenic events measured by the Tradescantia stamen-hair assay. The in situ approach employed in this study was simple, efficient, and of low cost. No air or chemical extraction of pollutants was necessary for genotoxicity testing as required by other assays.
Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995) 10/2000; 50(10):1852-6. · 1.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tradescantia pallida cv. purpurea, a popular garden plant in Brazil, was used for the Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) assay. In situ monitoring of the genotoxicity of air pollutants was carried out by sentinel approach, using the plant grown in the field or using the plants in pots which were carried to the monitoring sites. Two highly polluted sites, in São Paulo city (Cerqueira Cesar and Congonhas) and two rural sites (the cities of Pirassununga, 200 km and Caucaia do Alto, 50 km from São Paulo, respectively) were chosen for this study, in order to determine the gradient difference of the air pollution levels. Sentinel plants in Congonhas site presented the highest frequency of micronuclei (4.4%), in comparison with 2.2 and 2.3% found in plants from Pirassununga and Cerqueira Cesar sites, respectively (Kruskal-Wallis; P<0.020). Significant increases (F test; P<0.0001) in the frequency of micronuclei were observed in plants exposed in the polluted urban sites (Cerqueira Cesar: 5.7%; Congonhas: 7.1% and Caucaia do Alto: 2.3%). The increase in the frequency of micronuclei observed indicates the potential risk of mutagenicity in presence of high concentrations of pollutants.
Environmental and Experimental Botany 08/2000; 44(1):1-8. · 2.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to determine the clastogenicity of particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 microm) in the urban polluted air in the city of São Paulo. The Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN) assay was used throughout this study to evaluate the clastogenicity of the extracts of the particulate matter. Tradescantia pallida (Rose) Hunt. cv. purpurea, an indigenous cultivar, was used in the Trad-MCN assay. The efficacy of this plant material for the Trad-MCN assay was validated with dose-response studies using formaldehyde and beta radiation. Dose-response curves were established with these known mutagens. The extracts of the PM10 particles at concentrations between 5 and 50 ppm induced a dose-related increase in MCN frequencies. The results indicate that T. pallida is equally sensitive to mutagens as the standard Tradescantia clone 4430 or 03 and the particulate matter in the urban air are clastogenic to the chromosomes of this plant. Inhalation of these particles by urban dwellers may affect their health by inducing similar genetic damage.
Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 06/1999; 426(2):229-32. · 3.90 Impact Factor