R. Cutri

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (457)655 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are well-known to exhibit flux variability across a wide range of wavelength regimes, but the precise origin of the variability at different wavelengths remains unclear. To investigate the relatively unexplored near-IR variability of the most luminous AGNs, we conduct a search for variability using well sampled JHKs-band light curves from the 2MASS survey calibration fields. Our sample includes 27 known quasars with an average of 924 epochs of observation over three years, as well as one spectroscopically confirmed blazar (SDSSJ14584479+3720215) with 1972 epochs of data. This is the best-sampled NIR photometric blazar light curve to date, and it exhibits correlated, stochastic variability that we characterize with continuous auto-regressive moving average (CARMA) models. None of the other 26 known quasars had detectable variability in the 2MASS bands above the photometric uncertainty. A blind search of the 2MASS calibration field light curves for AGN candidates based on fitting CARMA(1,0) models (damped-random walk) uncovered only 7 candidates. All 7 were young stellar objects within the {\rho} Ophiuchus star forming region, five with previous X-ray detections. A significant {\gamma}-ray detection (5{\sigma}) for the known blazar using 4.5 years of Fermi photon data is also found. We suggest that strong NIR variability of blazars, such as seen for SDSSJ14584479+3720215, can be used as an efficient method of identifying previously-unidentified {\gamma}-ray blazars, with low contamination from other AGN.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2015; 803(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/803/1/2 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have carried out simulations to predict the performance of a new space-based telescopic survey operating at thermal infrared wavelengths that seeks to discover and characterize a large fraction of the potentially hazardous near-Earth asteroid (NEA) population. Two potential architectures for the survey were considered: one located at the Earth-Sun L1 Lagrange point, and one in a Venus-trailing orbit. A sample cadence was formulated and tested, allowing for the self-follow-up necessary for objects discovered in the daytime sky on Earth. Synthetic populations of NEAs with sizes >=140 m in effective spherical diameter were simulated using recent determinations of their physical and orbital properties. Estimates of the instrumental sensitivity, integration times, and slew speeds were included for both architectures assuming the properties of new large-format 10 um detector arrays capable of operating at ~35 K. Our simulation included the creation of a preliminary version of a moving object processing pipeline suitable for operating on the trial cadence. We tested this pipeline on a simulated sky populated with astrophysical sources such as stars and galaxies extrapolated from Spitzer and WISE data, the catalog of known minor planets (including Main Belt asteroids, comets, Jovian Trojans, etc.), and the synthetic NEA model. Trial orbits were computed for simulated position-time pairs extracted from the synthetic surveys to verify that the tested cadence would result in orbits suitable for recovering objects at a later time. Our results indicate that the Earth-Sun L1 and Venus-trailing surveys achieve similar levels of integral completeness for potentially hazardous asteroids larger than 140 m; placing the telescope in an interior orbit does not yield an improvement in discovery rates. This work serves as a necessary first step for the detailed planning of a next-generation NEA survey.
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    ABSTRACT: The Near-Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (NEOWISE) mission observed comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) three times at 3.4 {\mu}m and 4.6 {\mu}m as the comet approached Mars in 2014. The comet is an extremely interesting target since its close approach to Mars in late 2014 will be observed by various spacecraft in-situ. The observations were taken in 2014 Jan., Jul. and Sep. when the comet was at heliocentric distances of 3.82 AU, 1.88 AU, and 1.48 AU. The level of activity increased significantly between the Jan. and Jul. visits but then decreased by the time of the observations in Sep., approximately 4 weeks prior to its close approach to Mars. In this work we calculate Af\r{ho} values, and CO/CO2 production rates.
    12/2014; 798(2). DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/798/2/L31
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    ABSTRACT: M.P.E.C. 2014-U19 Issued 2014 Oct. 18, 16:53 UT The Minor Planet Electronic Circulars contain information on unusual minor planets and routine data on comets. They are published on behalf of Commission 20 of the International Astronomical Union by the Minor Planet Center, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A. Prepared using the Tamkin Foundation Computer Network MPC@CFA.HARVARD.EDU URL http://www.minorplanetcenter.net/ ISSN 1523-6714 2014 TJ64 Observations: K14T64J* S2014 10 07.79182 19 23 38.99 -42 45 15.1 19 RLEU019C51 K14T64J s2014 10 07.79182 1 + 2357.7810 - 4504.7416 - 4647.1640 EU019C51 K14T64J S2014 10 08.05490 19 24 33.00 -42 54 34.2 LEU019C51 K14T64J s2014 10 08.05490 1 + 2382.2213 - 4510.3105 - 4629.2512 EU019C51 K14T64J S2014 10 08.18644 19 25 00.22 -42 59 12.4 LEU019C51 K14T64J s2014 10 08.18644 1 + 2394.4827 - 4513.0890 - 4620.2011 EU019C51 K14T64J S2014 10 08.25215 19 25 13.92 -43 01 32.1 LEU019C51 K14T64J s2014 10 08.25215 1 + 2394.0625 - 4486.5994 - 4646.1564 EU019C51 K14T64J S2014 10 08.31785 19 25 27.58 -43 03 51.0 LEU019C51 K14T64J s2014 10 08.31785 1 + 2393.5302 - 4460.0324 - 4671.9549 EU019C51 K14T64J S2014 10 08.38369 19 25 41.37 -43 06 11.4 LEU019C51 K14T64J s2014 10 08.38369 1 + 2406.3317 - 4489.4520 - 4637.0462 EU019C51 K14T64J S2014 10 08.44939 19 25 55.09 -43 08 29.9 LEU019C51 K14T64J s2014 10 08.44939 1 + 2405.7815 - 4462.9712 - 4662.8387 EU019C51 K14T64J S2014 10 08.51510 19 26 08.93 -43 10 46.9 LEU019C51 K14T64J s2014 10 08.51510 1 + 2405.2429 - 4437.0219 - 4687.8918 EU019C51 K14T64J S2014 10 08.51523 19 26 08.95 -43 10 48.7 LEU019C51 K14T64J s2014 10 08.51523 1 + 2418.7633 - 4492.9528 - 4627.2370 EU019C51 K14T64J S2014 10 08.58093 19 26 22.79 -43 13 07.6 LEU019C51 K14T64J s2014 10 08.58093 1 + 2418.1939 - 4466.5447 - 4653.0456 EU019C51 K14T64J S2014 10 09.04113 19 28 00.60 -43 29 18.0 19 RLEU019C51 K14T64J s2014 10 09.04113 1 + 2440.3301 - 4393.1426 - 4711.0297 EU019C51 K14T64J S2014 10 09.04126 19 28 00.63 -43 29 18.8 LEU019C51 K14T64J s2014 10 09.04126 1 + 2454.5058 - 4449.2184 - 4650.6169 EU019C51 K14T64J S2014 10 09.17267 19 28 28.94 -43 33 54.1 LEU019C51 K14T64J s2014 10 09.17267 1 + 2452.6597 - 4396.3640 - 4701.6038 EU019C51 K14T64J S2014 10 09.30421 19 28 57.35 -43 38 31.3 LEU019C51 K14T64J s2014 10 09.30421 1 + 2465.0183 - 4399.5763 - 4692.1172 EU019C51 K14T64J S2014 10 09.43575 19 29 25.95 -43 43 06.9 LEU019C51 K14T64J s2014 10 09.43575 1 + 2477.4211 - 4402.8375 - 4682.5064 EU019C51 K14T64J S2014 10 09.56716 19 29 54.60 -43 47 41.6 LEU019C51 K14T64J s2014 10 09.56716 1 + 2475.0313 - 4349.9127 - 4732.9884 EU019C51 K14T64J KC2014 10 09.84701019 30 55.10 -43 57 25.8 21.5 RqEU019K93 K14T64J KC2014 10 09.85424619 30 56.65 -43 57 40.3 21.4 RqEU019K93 K14T64J KC2014 10 09.86329919 30 58.57 -43 57 58.8 22.2 RqEU019K93 K14T64J 4C2014 10 10.98527 19 35 13.60 -44 36 54.4 cEU019I11 K14T64J 4C2014 10 10.98611 19 35 13.84 -44 36 56.8 21.5 RcEU019I11 K14T64J 4C2014 10 10.98693 19 35 13.98 -44 36 58.1 21.5 RcEU019I11 K14T64J 4C2014 10 10.98775 19 35 14.14 -44 36 59.9 21.5 RcEU019I11 K14T64J KC2014 10 11.11134119 35 41.62 -44 41 09.2 20.5 RtEU019W86 K14T64J KC2014 10 11.12092119 35 43.79 -44 41 28.0 21.7 RtEU019W86 K14T64J KC2014 10 11.13056719 35 45.99 -44 41 47.2 21.0 RtEU019W86 K14T64J KC2014 10 18.10543420 06 31.93 -48 28 44.6 21.3 RtEU019W86 K14T64J KC2014 10 18.11068220 06 33.45 -48 28 53.7 21.1 RtEU019W86 K14T64J KC2014 10 18.11593020 06 34.97 -48 29 03.0 21.2 RtEU019W86 Observer details: C51 WISE. Measurers A. K. Mainzer, J. M. Bauer, T. Grav, J. R. Masiero, J. W. Dailey, R. M. Cutri, E. L. Wright, C. Nugent, S. Sonnett, R. Stevenson. I11 Gemini South Observatory, Cerro Pachon. Observers J. Masiero, A. Cardwell, E. Wenderoth. Measurer J. Masiero. 8.0-m reflector. K93 Sutherland-LCOGT C. Observer T. Lister. 1.0-m f/8 Ritchey-Chretien + CCD. W86 Cerro Tololo-LCOGT B. Observer T. Lister. 1.0-m f/8 Ritchey-Chretien + CCD. Orbital elements: 2014 TJ64 Earth MOID = 0.1537 AU Epoch 2014 Dec. 9.0 TT = JDT 2457000.5 MPC M 9.36589 (2000.0) P Q n 0.23291111 Peri. 235.12847 +0.92748200 -0.34229560 a 2.6162299 Node 144.20439 +0.36711645 +0.90991332 e 0.5975137 Incl. 14.89729 -0.07072939 +0.23428930 P 4.23 H 21.2 G 0.15 U 6 Residuals in seconds of arc 141007 C51 0.2+ 0.3- 141009 C51 0.2- 0.2- 141010 I11 0.6+ 0.6- 141008 C51 0.2- 0.4- 141009 C51 0.2- 0.5- 141010 I11 0.2+ 0.3- 141008 C51 0.3- 0.4+ 141009 C51 0.2+ 0.3+ 141010 I11 0.0 0.4- 141008 C51 0.2+ 0.1- 141009 C51 0.1- 0.5- 141011 W86 0.2- 0.4- 141008 C51 0.1- 0.0 141009 C51 0.1+ 0.1- 141011 W86 0.1- 0.1- 141008 C51 0.3+ 0.8- 141009 C51 0.4- 0.3+ 141011 W86 0.0 0.2- 141008 C51 0.1- 0.4- 141009 K93 0.1- 0.7+ 141018 W86 0.1+ 0.1+ 141008 C51 0.4+ 1.4+ 141009 K93 0.1- 0.9+ 141018 W86 0.0 0.1+ 141008 C51 0.2+ 0.2+ 141009 K93 0.5- 0.7+ 141018 W86 0.1- 0.0 141008 C51 0.4+ 0.0 141010 I11 0.0 0.0 Ephemeris: 2014 TJ64 a,e,i = 2.62, 0.60, 15 q = 1.0530 Date TT R. A. (2000) Decl. Delta r Elong. Phase V 2014 09 18 18 39 04.2 -30 39 01 0.4262 1.1799 103.5 55.9 21.7 ... 2014 10 03 19 08 48.6 -39 52 45 0.4100 1.1079 94.0 64.3 21.8 ... 2014 10 11 19 35 17.1 -44 37 18 0.4013 1.0806 90.7 67.5 21.8 ... 2014 10 17 20 01 09.2 -47 54 43 0.3949 1.0659 89.0 69.2 21.8 2014 10 18 20 06 01.8 -48 25 30 0.3939 1.0640 88.8 69.4 21.7 2014 10 19 20 11 04.5 -48 55 31 0.3929 1.0622 88.6 69.7 21.7 ... 2014 10 25 20 45 03.9 -51 36 10 0.3872 1.0548 88.0 70.4 21.7 ... 2014 11 02 21 40 11.9 -53 57 14 0.3814 1.0538 88.5 70.3 21.7 ... 2014 11 17 23 39 50.3 -52 37 17 0.3798 1.0789 93.2 66.2 21.6 A. U. Tomatic (C) Copyright 2014 MPC M.P.E.C. 2014-U19
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    ABSTRACT: We present 20 WISE-selected galaxies with bolometric luminosities L_bol > 10^14 L_sun, including five with infrared luminosities L_IR = L(rest 8-1000 micron) > 10^14 L_sun. These "extremely luminous infrared galaxies," or ELIRGs, were discovered using the "W1W2-dropout" selection criteria (Eisenhardt et al. 2012) which requires marginal or non-detections at 3.4 and 4.6 micron (W1 and W2, respectively) but strong detections at 12 and 22 micron in the WISE survey. Their spectral energy distributions are dominated by emission at rest-frame 4-10 micron, suggesting that hot dust with T_d ~ 450K is responsible for the high luminosities. These galaxies are likely powered by highly obscured AGNs, and there is no evidence suggesting these systems are beamed or lensed. We compare this WISE-selected sample with 116 optically selected quasars that reach the same L_bol level, corresponding to the most luminous unobscured quasars in the literature. We find that the rest-frame 5.8 and 7.8 micron luminosities of the WISE-selected ELIRGs can be 30%-80% higher than that of the unobscured quasars. Assuming Eddington-limited accretion, the existence of AGNs with L_bol > 10^14 L_sun at z > 3 places strong constraints on the supermassive black hole growth history, suggesting that these supermassive black holes are born with large mass, or have very rapid mass assembly, possibly by chaotic accretion.
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    ABSTRACT: NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) spacecraft has been brought out of hibernation and has resumed surveying the sky at 3.4 and 4.6 um. The scientific objectives of the NEOWISE reactivation mission are to detect, track, and characterize near-Earth asteroids and comets. The search for minor planets resumed on December 23, 2013, and the first new near-Earth object (NEO) was discovered six days later. As an infrared survey, NEOWISE detects asteroids based on their thermal emission and is equally sensitive to high and low albedo objects; consequently, NEOWISE-discovered NEOs tend to be large and dark. Over the course of its three-year mission, NEOWISE will determine radiometrically-derived diameters and albedos for approximately 2000 NEOs and tens of thousands of Main Belt asteroids. The 32 months of hibernation have had no significant effect on the mission's performance. Image quality, sensitivity, photometric and astrometric accuracy, completeness, and the rate of minor planet detections are all essentially unchanged from the prime mission's post-cryogenic phase.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2014; 792(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/792/1/30 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present SCUBA-2 850um submillimetre (submm) observations of the fields of 10 dusty, luminous galaxies at z ~ 1.7 - 4.6, detected at 12um and/or 22um by the WISE all-sky survey, but faint or undetected at 3.4um and 4.6um; dubbed hot, dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs). The six detected targets all have total infrared luminosities greater than 10^13 L_sun, with one greater than 10^14 L_sun. Their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are very blue from mid-infrared to submm wavelengths and not well fitted by standard AGN SED templates, without adding extra dust extinction to fit the WISE 3.4um and 4.6um data. The SCUBA-2 850um observations confirm that the Hot DOGs have less cold and/or more warm dust emission than standard AGN templates, and limit an underlying extended spiral or ULIRG-type galaxy to contribute less than about 2% or 55% of the typical total Hot DOG IR luminosity, respectively. The two most distant and luminous targets have similar observed submm to mid-infrared ratios to the rest, and thus appear to have even hotter SEDs. The number of serendipitous submm galaxies (SMGs) detected in the 1.5-arcmin-radius SCUBA-2 850um maps indicates there is a significant over-density of serendipitous sources around Hot DOGs. These submm observations confirm that the WISE-selected ultra-luminous galaxies have very blue mid-infrared to submm SEDs, suggesting that they contain very powerful AGN, and are apparently located in unusual arcmin-scale overdensities of very luminous dusty galaxies.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 06/2014; 443(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu1157 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) spacecraft has been reactivated as NEOWISE-R to characterize and search for Near Earth Objects. The brown dwarf WISE J085510.83-071442.5 has now been reobserved by NEOWISE-R, and we confirm the results of Luhman (2014b), who found a very low effective temperature, a very high proper motion, and a large parallax. The large proper motion has separated the brown dwarf from the background sources that influenced the 2010 WISE data, allowing a measurement of a very red WISE color of W1-W2 > 3.9. A re-analysis of the 2010 WISE astrometry using only the W2 band, combined with the new NEOWISE-R 2014 position, gives an improved parallax of 448 +/- 32 mas and proper motion of 8.072 +/- 0.026 arcsec/yr. These are all consistent with Luhman (2014b).
    The Astronomical Journal 05/2014; 148(5). DOI:10.1088/0004-6256/148/5/82 · 4.05 Impact Factor
  • Article: 2014 HQ124
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract available on the publisher website.
  • Article: 2014 HJ129
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract available on the publisher website.
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    ABSTRACT: The NEOWISE project has recently resumed its survey for asteroids and comets at 3.4 and 4.6 µm.
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    ABSTRACT: The AllWISE processing pipeline has measured motions for all objects detected on WISE images taken between 2010 January and 2011 February. In this paper, we discuss new capabilities made to the software pipeline in order to make motion measurements possible, and we characterize the resulting data products for use by future researchers. Using a stringent set of selection criteria, we find 22,445 objects that have significant AllWISE motions, of which 3,525 have motions that can be independently confirmed from earlier 2MASS images yet lack any published motions in SIMBAD. Another 58 sources lack 2MASS counterparts and are presented as motion candidates only. Limited spectroscopic follow-up of this list has already revealed eight new L subdwarfs. These may provide the first hints of a "subdwarf gap" at mid-L types that would indicate the break between the stellar and substellar populations at low metallicities (i.e., old ages). Another object in the motion list -- WISEA J154045.67-510139.3 -- is a bright (J ~ 9 mag) object of type M6; both the spectrophotometric distance and a crude preliminary parallax place it ~6 pc from the Sun. We also compare our list of motion objects to the recently published list of 762 WISE motion objects from Luhman (2014). While these first large motion studies with WISE data have been very successful in revealing previously overlooked nearby dwarfs, both studies missed objects that the other found, demonstrating that many other nearby objects likely await discovery in the AllWISE data products.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2014; 783(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/783/2/122 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a methodology to classify periodic variable stars identified in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) full-mission single-exposure Source Database. This will assist in the future construction of a WISE periodic-Variable Source Database that assigns variables to specific science classes as constrained by the WISE observing cadence with statistically meaningful classification probabilities. We have analyzed the WISE light curves of 8273 variable stars identified in previous optical variability surveys (MACHO, GCVS, and ASAS) and show that Fourier decomposition techniques can be extended into the mid-IR to assist with their classification. Combined with other periodic light-curve features, this sample is then used to train a machine-learned classifier based on the random forest (RF) method. Consistent with previous classification studies of variable stars in general, the RF machine-learned classifier is superior to other methods in terms of accuracy, robustness against outliers, and relative immunity to features that carry little or redundant class information. For the three most common classes identified by WISE: Algols, RR Lyrae, and W Ursae Majoris type variables, we obtain classification efficiencies of 80.7%, 82.7%, and 84.5% respectively using cross-validation analyses, with 95% confidence intervals of approximately +/-2%. These accuracies are achieved at purity (or reliability) levels of 88.5%, 96.2%, and 87.8% respectively, similar to that achieved in previous automated classification studies of periodic variable stars.
    The Astronomical Journal 02/2014; 148(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-6256/148/1/21 · 4.05 Impact Factor
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  • The Astrophysical Journal 01/2014; 782(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/782/1/58 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The solar system science component of NASA’s Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), known as NEOWISE, extracted detections of more than 158,000 asteroids and comets, including 34,000 new discoveries. These objects were detected through a search algorithm that actively rejected inertially fixed sources such as stars and galaxies and selected candidate moving objects through the construction of position-time pairs known as tracklets. A minimum of five detections were required in order to construct a tracklet; this system enabled the discovery of new minor planets as well as detection of previously known objects. However, many more asteroids are potentially recoverable in the NEOWISE data, such as objects that failed to appear in five or more images. Stacking of objects with well-known ephemerides at the observational epoch has allowed for the recovery of many objects that fell below the single-frame detection threshold. Additional objects were recovered by searching the NEOWISE source lists for objects that appeared fewer than five times in single frames. We present the results of a pilot study that has allowed for the recovery of minor planets from the NEOWISE data using both techniques, resulting in the derivation of diameters and albedos for the sample. This pilot study will be extended to the entire catalog of known minor planets by the NEOWISE project in the near future.

Publication Stats

8k Citations
655.00 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Applied Physics Laboratory
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2012
    • National Radio Astronomy Observatory
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
    • University of Leicester
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Leiscester, England, United Kingdom
    • University of California, Davis
      Davis, California, United States
  • 2000–2012
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Infrared Processing and Analysis Center
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Maryland, College Park
      • Department of Astronomy
      CGS, Maryland, United States
  • 2007
    • Ruhr-Universität Bochum
      Bochum, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2006
    • Air Force Research Laboratory
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2005
    • University of Virginia
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
    • Universidad Católica del Norte (Chile)
      Antofagasta, Antofagasta, Chile
  • 1987
    • The University of Arizona
      • Department of Astronomy
      Tucson, Arizona, United States