C. Tsiamis

Harokopion University of Athens, Athínai, Attica, Greece

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Publications (88)90.3 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Dromokaition Psychiatric Hospital opened its doors in 1887, following the donation made by Zorzis Dromokaitis from the island of Chios. Private donations and all forms of charities had contributed to a large extent in the establishment of hospitals across Greece, during the late 19th and the early 20th century. Dromokaition was one of them but it was also unique, as it was the first psychiatric hospital in Athens, admitting patients from every part of the country. This paper aimed at highlighting the long service of the institution through the different historical periods the country went through. We present the chronicle of its foundation, the development of its inner structure, and the medical and organizational influences which it received, along the way. The therapeutic methods used during the first decades of its operation reflected the corresponding European standards of the time. As a model institution from its foundation, it followed closely the prevailing European guidelines, throughout its historical path, either as an independent institution or as an integrated one within the National Health Service.
    Annals of General Psychiatry 12/2015; 14(1):7. DOI:10.1186/s12991-015-0047-1 · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to present the social, scientific and institutional context which permitted the use of leucotomies in Greece, we have reviewed the Archives of the Medical Associations, the medical literature of the years 1946-56, a reader's dissertation and the memoirs of two psychiatrists. More than 250 leucotomies were done in the two public psychiatric hospitals in Athens from 1947 to 1954, as well as 40 leucotomies in the public psychiatric hospital in Thessaloniki. Although aware of the side effects, psychiatrists justified the use of the procedure. The performance of leucotomies in Greece declined because of reports of the dangers of the operation and its unpredictable outcome for the patients, but mainly because of the encouraging results with psychotropic drugs in the early 1950s. © The Author(s) 2014.
    History of Psychiatry 03/2015; 26(1):80-7. DOI:10.1177/0957154X14529224 · 0.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study is to explore the medieval concepts on the voluntary death of severely sick people, as they emerge through the endura (endurance) of the heresy of the Cathars in France (twelfth to fourteenth centuries). The endura was the prerequisite act of repentance that would allow the fallen soul to return to heaven. The endura was a necessary act of repentance, after the performance of a ceremonial purification of the soul (consolamentum), and consisted of the patients' voluntary abstention from vital food. The consolamentum and endura could be performed in the final stage of a disease with the consent of the patients or their relatives. The role of the Cathar physician was only to determine the severity of the disease and the forthcoming death of the patient. The physician was not allowed to take steps that would deprive the life of the patient, and the performance of the ritual endura was duty of the spiritual leaders of the community. The modern ethical approach to this subject is dictated by the medieval belief on the salvation of the soul and tries to answer the question of whether the endura could be seen as a medieval concept of a ritual euthanasia or fell within the theological sin of suicide.
    Journal of Religion and Health 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10943-015-0021-x · 1.02 Impact Factor
  • AMHA - Acta Medico-Historica Adriatica 01/2015; 13(1):95-104.
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    ABSTRACT: The Hippocratic Collection, including the most of ancient Greek medicine, remains still interesting, despite the recent advances that transformed definitely the urological healing methods. Considering the patient as a unique psycho-somatic entity and avoiding high risk surgical manipulations were the leading principles dictating the everyday practice. Contemporary physicians can still learn from the clinical observations in times of complete absence of laboratory or imaging aid, from the prognostic thoughts, the ethics, and the philosophical concepts, represented by the Hippocratic writings, tracing into them the roots of Rational Medicine in general and Urology in particular.
    International braz j urol: official journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology 01/2015; 41(1):26-9. · 0.96 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Endourology 09/2014; 28(suppl 1). · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this research is to present syphilis among women described as "indecent" according to the records of the Venereal Diseases Hospital "Andreas Syggros", which is located in Athens, during the period 1931-1935. In impoverished Greece of the Interwar period, factors such as criminal ignorance, or lack of information on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) along with inadequate health controls of sex workers, resulted in a dramatic spread of syphilis, whereas "Andreas Syggros" hospital accommodated thousands of patients. The inflow of 1.300.000 Greek refugees from Asia Minor, after the Greek defeat by the Turkish army in the war of 1922, resulted in a notable change in the demographics of the country, while the combination of miserable living conditions, unemployment, economic crisis of the Interwar period, political instability and dysfunction of the State led to an increased number of illegal sex workers and syphilis outbreaks. Despite the introduction of an ad hoc Act to control STDs since 1923, the State was unable to limit the transmissibility of syphilis and to control prostitution. Unfortunately, the value of this historical paradigm is borne out by a contemporary example, i.e. the scandal of HIV seropositive sex workers in -beset by economic crisis- Greece in May 2012. It turns out that ignorance, failure to comply with the law, change in the mentality of the citizens in an economically ruined society, and most notably dysfunction of public services during periods of crisis, are all risk factors for the spread of serious infectious diseases.
    Giornale italiano di dermatologia e venereologia: organo ufficiale, Societa italiana di dermatologia e sifilografia 08/2014; 149(4):461-9. · 0.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: FRII-01 Syphilis’ Impact on Late Works of Classical Music Composers L REMPELAKOS, E POULAKOU-REBELAKOU, K TSIAMIS, A REMPELAKOS*, ATHENS, Greece INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: To present the effects of the tertiary stage syphilis on the last works of some famous European classical music composers suffering from the disease. METHODS: The review of the biographies of seven documented syphilis cases of composers, focusing on the events of their last period of life and the review of the critics for their artistic expression under disease-affected circumstances. RESULTS: The 19th century is undeniably considered as the golden age of classical music but, at the same time, some of the most famous composers were victims of this disease-menace, strongly stigmatizing themselves and their families, the latter trying to keep the shameful secret, aftermath destructing sources and documents. Seven cases of musicians with syphilis have been studied: Franz Schubert died at the age of 31, while Robert Schumann and Hugo Wolf (age at death 46 and 43 respectively), both attempted suicide and passed the rest of their lives in insane asylums. Moreover, Gaetano Donizetti infected his wife, Virginia, who died in childbirth before his own death occurring between catatonic symptoms and bouts of persecution mania. Bedrich Smetana predicted his death entitling his composition “final page” and indeed, he did not compose anymore and died soon in a mental asylum. Frederick Delius lived for fifteen years blind and paralyzed dictating his scores to a young follower of his music, although the quality of the late compositions cannot be compared with the priors. Finally, Niccolò Paganini, who did not appear with mental decline, lost his voice, probably as a secondary effect of mercury treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Syphilis has been a fatal disease through ages and among its victims, authors and artists died with symptoms of mental deterioration due to neurosyphilis. The influence of the disease upon their last works can be traced especially in the case of composers, as hallucinations and horrors and psychological conflicts are reflected in their music. Source of Funding: NONE
    AUA Annual Congress, Orlando, FL, USA, May 15-21, 2014; 04/2014
  • Acta Microbiologica Hellenica 03/2014; 59(1).
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    ABSTRACT: The present study highlights the history of lazarettos in Candia (modern Heraklion, Crete, Greece), which was the most important Venetian possession in the Mediterranean at the time, while at the same time it recounts the terrible plague which went down in history as the Great Plague of Candia (1592-1595). The study will also attempt to give a satisfactory answer to the epidemiological questions raised by the worst epidemic that Crete had experienced since the era of the Black Death in the 14th century. The city was about to lose more than a half of its population (51.3%), although it was saved from complete annihilation by the composure, courage and inventiveness of its Venetian commander, Filippo Pasqualigo, whose report to the Venetian Senate makes an invaluable source of information regarding the events of this dramatic period. Candia would also witness the emergence of typical human reactions in cases of epidemics and mass deaths, such as running away along with the feeling of self-preservation, dissolute life and ephemeral pleasures, as well as lawlessness and criminality. The lazaretto proved inefficient in the face of a disaster of such scale, whereas the epidemic functioned as a "crash-test" for the Venetian health system. Eventually, in an era when the microbial nature of the disease was unknown, it seems that it was practically impossible to handle emergency situations of large-scale epidemics successfully, despite strict laws and well-organized precautionary health systems.
    Le infezioni in medicina: rivista periodica di eziologia, epidemiologia, diagnostica, clinica e terapia delle patologie infettive 03/2014; 22(1):70-83.
  • Archives of Hellenic Medicine 01/2014; 31(1).
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    Journal of nephrology 12/2013; 26(Suppl. 22):28-29. DOI:10.5301/jn.5000363 · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    Effie Poulakou-Rebelakou, Costas Tsiamis
    Journal of nephrology 12/2013; 26(Suppl. 22):215-216. DOI:10.5301/jn.5000341 · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We attempt to present and analyze suicidal behaviour in the ancient Greek and Roman world. Drawing information from ancient Greek and Latin sources (History, Philosophy, Medicine, Literature, Visual Arts) we aim to point out psychological and social aspects of suicidal behaviour in antiquity. The shocking exposition of suicides reveals the zeitgeist of each era and illustrates the prevailing concepts. Social and legal reactions appear ambivalent, as they can oscillate from acceptance and interpretation of the act to punishment. In the history of these attitudes, we can observe continuities and breaches, reserving a special place in cases of mental disease. The delayed emergence of a generally accepted term for the voluntary exit from life (the term suicidium established during the 17th century), is connected to reactions triggered by the act of suicide than to the frequency and the extent of the phenomenon. The social environment of the person, who voluntary ends his life usually dictates the behaviour and historical evidence confirms the phenomenon.
    12/2013; 6(6):548-51. DOI:10.1016/j.ajp.2013.08.001
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    ABSTRACT: The presentation of the cult of phallus in ancient Greece and the artistic appearance of the phenomenon on vase figures and statues, as indicative of the significant role of the male genitalia in all fertility ceremonies. The examination of a great number of penile representations from the ancient Greek pottery and sculpture and the review of the ancient theater plays (satiric dramas and comedies ). Phallus in artistic representation is connected either with gods of fertility, such as the goat-footed and horned Pan or the ugly dwarf Priapus or the semi-animal nailed figures Satyrs, devotees of the god Dionysus accompanying him in all ritual orgiastic celebrations. Phallus also symbolizes good luck, health and sexuality: people bear or wear artificial phalli exactly like the actors as part of their costume or carry huge penises during the festive ritual processions. On the contrary, the Olympic gods or the ordinary mortals are not imaged ithyphallic; the ideal type of male beauty epitomized in classical sculpture, normally depicts genitals of average or less than average size. It is noteworthy that many of these images belong to athletes during or immediately after hard exercise with the penis shrunk. The normal size genitalia may have been simply a convention to distinguish normal people from the gods of sexuality and fertility, protectors of the reproductive process of Nature. The representation of the over-sized and erected genitalia on vase figures or statues of ancient Greek art is related to fertility gods such as Priapus, Pan and Satyrs and there is strong evidence that imagination and legend were replacing the scientific achievements in the field of erectile function for many centuries.
    Archivos españoles de urología 12/2013; 66(10):911-916.
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclops are among the best-known monsters of Greek mythology, also mentioned in art and literature. According to the most recent scientific knowledge, the malformations caused by defective development of the anterior brain and midline mesodermal structures include cyclopia (synophthalmos), ethmocephaly, cebocephaly and arrhinencephaly. These severe forebrain lesions often are accompanied by severe systemic malformations, and affected infants rarely survive. Neither true cyclopia nor synophthalmos are compatible with life because an anomalous development of the brain is involved. Thus, it is difficult to assume that ancient Greeks drew their inspiration from an adult patient suffering from cyclopia. Cyclops appear for the first time in literature in Homer's Odyssey (8th-7th century BC) and one of them, Polyphemus, is blinded by the hero of the epic poem. The description of the creature is identical with patients suffering from cyclopia; eyes are fused and above the median eye there is a proboscis, which is the result of an abnormal development of the surface ectodermal structures covering the brain. The next literature appearance of Cyclops is at the end of 7th century BC in "Theogonia", written by Hesiodus. Another interesting description is made by Euripides in his satyr play entitled 'Cyclops' (5th century BC). In conclusion, though it is not certain whether Homer's description of Cyclops was based on his personal experience or the narration of his ancestors, there is no doubt that the ophthalmological disease, cyclopia, was named after this mythical creature.
    Italian journal of anatomy and embryology = Archivio italiano di anatomia ed embriologia 11/2013; 118(3):256-62.
  • Urology 09/2013; 82(3 suppl 1):S225. · 2.13 Impact Factor
  • Urology 09/2013; 82(3 suppl 1):S225-S226. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This review presents the medical and social role of British military doctors in the formation of the British sanitary campaign in the Ionian Islands during the period 1815-1864. They were the core of a health system based on the old sanitary model of the Venetian Republic, which was the former ruler of the region. The British innovation and reorganisation of the old lazarettos (a quarantine system for maritime travellers), the new marine sanitary procedures, the determination of quarantine duration for major infectious diseases along with the introduction of the vaccination system resulted in a satisfactory defence against epidemics in Greece during the 19th century. The British military physicians applied and established West European medical ideas, as well as the principles of preventive medicine, for the first time in the Greek territory and this is a historical example of a successful sanitary campaign based on the experience of military physicians and their collaboration with civilian physicians.
    Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps 04/2013; 159(3). DOI:10.1136/jramc-2013-000037 · 0.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 1905, a group of eminent Greek physicians led by Professor of Hygiene and Microbiology Constantinos Savvas and the pediatrician Dr. Ioannis Kardamatis founded the Greek Anti-Malaria League. The League assumed a role that the State would not, and for the next 25 years organized the country's anti-malaria campaign. During its first steps, the Greek Anti-Malaria League adopted the principles of Professor Angelo Celli's Italian Anti-Malaria League. The League's accomplishments include a decrease in malarial prevalence, due to mass treatment with quinine, new legislation ensuring the provision of quinine, State monopoly and the collection of epidemiologic data. However, defeat in the Greek-Turkish War (1922) and the massive influx of one million Greek refugees that ensued, led to a change in malarial epidemiology. In 1928, following a visit to Italy, the Greek League adopted the organization and knowledge of the Italian Malaria Schools in Rome and in Nettuno, and this experience served as the basis of their proposal to the State for the development of the anti-malaria services infrastructure. The State adopted many of Professor Savvas' proposals and modified his plan according to Greek needs. The League's experience, accumulated during its 25 years of struggle against malaria, was its legacy to the campaigns that eventually accomplished the eradication of malaria from Greece after World War II.
    Le infezioni in medicina: rivista periodica di eziologia, epidemiologia, diagnostica, clinica e terapia delle patologie infettive 03/2013; 21(1):56-71.