C M Sousa

Universidade Federal do Ceará, Ceará, Ceará, Brazil

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Publications (7)29.03 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Receptors for natriuretic peptides have been demonstrated as potential targets for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction. This study investigates the relaxant effects of the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and uroguanylin (UGN), and expression of natriuretic peptide receptors on strips of human corpora cavernosa (HCC). Quantitative analysis of natriuretic receptor expression and relaxation of precontracted strips were used to assess the membrane-bound guanylate cyclase-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway in HCC strips. HCC was obtained from a cadaver donor at the time of collection of organs for transplantation (14-47 years) and strips were mounted in organ baths for isometric studies. ANP and UGN both induced concentration-dependent relaxation on HCC strips with a maximal response attained at 300 nM, corresponding to 45.4±4.0% and 49±4.8%, respectively. The relaxation is not affected by 30 µM 1H-[1,2,4]oxaolodiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) (a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor), but it is significantly blocked by 10 µM isatin, a nonspecific particulate guanylate cyclase (pGC) inhibitor. UGN was unable to potentiate electrical field stimulation (EFS) or acetylcholine-induced relaxations. The potential role of pGC activation and cGMP generation in this effect is reinforced by the potentiation of this effect by phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor vardenafil (55.0±7.5-UGN vs. 98.6±1.4%-UGN+vardenafil; P<0.05). The relaxant effect was also partially (37.6%) blocked by the combination iberitoxin-apamin but was insensitive to glybenclamide. The expression of guanylate cyclase receptors (GC-A, GC-B, GC-C) and the expression of the natriuretic peptide "clearance" receptor (NPR-C) were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The exposure of HCC strips to ANP (1 µM) and UGN (10 µM) significantly increased cGMP, but not cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels. UGN relaxes HCC strips by a guanylate cyclase and K(ca)-channel-dependent mechanism. These findings obtained in HCC reveal that the natriuretic peptide receptors are potential targets for the development of new drugs for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.
    Journal of Sexual Medicine 11/2010; 7(11):3610-9. · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1,8-Cineole is a monoterpene with anti-inflammatory, vascular and intestinal smooth muscle relaxant activity. We have evaluated the potential bronchodilatatory activity of this compound. 1,8-Cineole was tested against carbachol, histamine, K+ 80 mM and ovalbumin-induced bronchial contractions in Wistar rat or guinea-pig tissues. Some of the guinea-pigs had been previously sensitized with an intramuscular injection of 5% (w/v) ovalbumin/saline solution. Control animals received 0.3 ml saline. In separate experimental groups the response to 1,8-cineole (1-30 mg/kg), phenoterol (0.05-5 mg/kg) or vehicle (0.3% Tween in saline) was studied. 1,8-Cineole decreased, in vivo, rat bronchial resistance with similar efficacy as phenoterol (66.7 +/- 3.2% vs 72.1 +/- 5.3%). On the other hand, the maximal relaxant response to 1,8-cineole in carbachol-precontracted rat tracheas was 85.5 +/- 5.7% (IC50 = 408.9 (328-5196) microg/ml) compared with 80.2 +/- 4.8% (IC50 = 5.1 (4.3-6.1) microg/ml) with phenoterol. The addition of 1,8-cineole to guinea-pig tracheal rings tonically contracted with K+ 80 mM induced a concentration-related relaxation. The maximal relaxation elicited by 1,8-cineole was 113.6 +/- 11.7% (IC50 127.0 (115.9-139.2) microg/ml) compared with 129.7 +/- 14.6% (IC50 0.13 (0.12-0.14) microg/ml) achieved after phenoterol administration. In addition, the incubation of tracheal rings with 1,8-cineole (100, 300 or 1000 microg/ml), 15 min before inducing phasic contractions with K+ 80 mM, decreased the maximal amplitude of the contraction by 31.6 +/- 4.6, 75.7 +/- 2.7 and 92.2 +/- 1.5%, respectively. In another set of experiments, neither the maximal response nor the IC50 for the 1,8-cineole-induced relaxation were different between normal and ovalbumin-sensitized tissues. Moreover, the relaxation of bronchial rings contracted after exposure to 1 microg/ml ovalbumin occurred at a faster rate in rings pre-incubated with 1,8-cineole when compared with rings pre-incubated with vehicle only (Tween 0.3%). Therefore, in the first minute after the antigen challenge, the tracheal tissue relaxed after the peak contraction by 6.5, 21.4 (P < 0.05 vs control) and 66.9% (P < 0.05 vs control) in the presence of 100, 300 or 1000 microg/ml 1,8-cineole, respectively. 1,8-Cineole relaxed rat and guinea-pig (nonsensitized and ovalbumin-sensitized) airway smooth muscle by a nonspecific mechanism.
    Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 03/2009; 61(3):361-6. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Crotalus durissus cascavella is a snake that is usually found in the scrublands of northeast Brazil. The components of its venom may have effects on the vascular and renal systems. Recently, a new bradykinin inhibitory peptide has been identified in the venom of the Crotalinae family. The aim of the present study was to investigate the renal and vascular effects of the natriuretic peptide isolated from the venom of Crotalus durissus cascavella (NP2_Casca). The chromatographic profile showed the fractionation of substances identified as convulxin, gyroxin, crotoxin and crotamine, as well as fractions V and VI. The electrophoretic profile of fraction V consisted of several bands ranging from approximately 6 kDa to 13 kDa, while fraction VI showed only two main electrophoretic bands with molecular weights of approximately 6 and 14 kDa. Reverse-phase chromatography showed that NP2_Casca corresponds to about 18% of fraction VI and that this fraction is the main natriuretic peptide. NP2_Casca was compared to other natriuretic peptides from other sources of snake venom. All amino acid sequences that were compared showed a consensus region of XGCFGX, XLDRIX and XSGLGCX. The group treated with NP2_Casca showed an increase in perfusion pressure, renal vascular resistance, urinary flow and glomerular filtration rate. The percent of total and proximal tubular transport of sodium was reduced significantly after administration of the peptide. The mean arterial pressure showed a dose-dependent decrease after infusion of NP2_Casca, and an increase in nitrite production. In the aortic ring assay, NP2_Casca caused a relaxant effect in endothelium-intact thoracic aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine in the presence and absence of isatin. NP2_Casca failed to relax the aortic rings precontracted with an isosmotic potassium Krebs–Henseleit solution. In conclusion, the natriuretic peptide isolated from Crotalus durissus cascavella venom produced renal and vascular effects. NP2_Casca reduced total and proximal sodium tubular transport, leading to an increase in sodium excretion, thereby demonstrating a diuretic action. A hypotensive effect was displayed in an arterial pressure assay, with an increase in nitrite production, suggesting a possible vasoactive action.
    Toxicon 10/2008; · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oncocalyxone A (OncoA) has a concentration-dependent anti-platelet activity. The present study aimed to further understand the mechanisms related to this effect. Human platelet aggregation was measured by means of a turbidimetric method. OncoA (32-256 microM) was tested against several platelet-aggregating agents, such as adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen, arachidonic acid (AA), ristocetin and thrombin. OncoA completely inhibited platelet aggregation with a calculated mean inhibitory concentration (IC50-microM) of 122 for ADP, 161 for collagen, 159 for AA, 169 for ristocetin and 85 for thrombin. The anti-aggregatory activity of OncoA was not inhibited by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). OncoA, at a concentration that caused no significant anti-aggregatory activity, potentiated sodium nitroprusside (SNP) anti-aggregatory activity (18.8+/-2.9%-SNP vs 85.0+/-8.2%-SNP+OncoA). The levels of nitric oxide (NO) or cAMP were not altered by OncoA while cGMP levels were increased more than 10-fold by OncoA in resting or ADP-activated platelets. Flow cytometry revealed that OncoA does not interact with receptors for fibrinogen, collagen or P-selectin. Nevertheless, OncoA decreased the binding of antibodies to GP Ibalpha, a glycoprotein that is related both to von Willebrand factor and to thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. OncoA showed anti-aggregatory activity in platelets that was associated with increased cGMP levels, not dependent on NO and with blocking GP Ibalpha glycoprotein. This new mechanism has the prospect of leading to new anti-thrombotic drugs.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 08/2008; 154(6):1216-24. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is an early feature of cardiovascular risk and diabetes. Hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia are causative factors. Excessive endothelial mitochondrial superoxide (ROS) production with hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia is a key mechanism. Inositol components of an insulin inositol glycan mediator, d-chiro-inositol (DCI) and 3-O-methyl DCI (pinitol), decrease hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. We tested whether these, myoinositol and dibutyryl DCI (db-DCI), would prevent or reverse ED in diabetic rats and rabbits. Oral inositols reduced hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia with different potencies and prevented ED in rat aortic rings and mesenteric beds. Inositols added in vitro to five diabetic tissues reversed ED. Relaxation by Ach, NO, and electrical field stimulation was potentiated by inositols in vitro in rabbit penile corpus cavernosa. Inositols in vitro restored impaired contraction by the eNOS inhibitor l-NAME and increased NO effectiveness. DCI and db-DCI decreased elevated ROS in endothelial cells in high glucose and db-DCI reduced PKC activation, hexosamine pathway activity, and advanced glycation end products to basal levels. Xanthine/xanthine oxidase generated superoxide was reduced by superoxide dismutase or inositols, with db-DCI efficacious in a mechanism requiring chelated Fe(3+). Histochemical examination of rat aortic rings for protein SNO demonstrated a decrease in diabetic rings with restoration by inositols. In summary, inositols prevented and reversed ED in rat and rabbit vessels, reduced elevated ROS in endothelial cells, potentiated nitrergic or vasculo-myogenic relaxations, and preserved NO signaling. These effects are related to their metabolic actions, direct superoxide scavenging, and enhancing and protecting NO signaling. Of the inositols tested, db-DCI was most effective.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2006; 103(1):218-23. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tityus serrulatus, popularly known as yellow scorpion, is one of the most studied scorpion species in South America and its venom has supplied some highly active molecules. The effects of T. serrulatus venom upon the renal physiology in human showed increased renal parameters, urea and creatinine. However, in perfused rat kidney the effects were not tested until now. Isolated kidneys from Wistar rats, weighing 240-280 g, were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 6% (g weight) of previously dialysed bovine serum albumin. The effects of T. serrulatus venom were studied on the perfusion pressure (PP), renal vascular resistance (RVR), urinary flow (UF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), sodium tubular transport (%TNa+), potassium tubular transport (%TK+) and chloride tubular transport (%TCl-). Tityus serrulatus venom (TsV; 10 microg/mL) was added to the system 30 min after the beginning of each experiment (n=6). This 30 min period was used as an internal control. The mesenteric bed was perfused with Krebs solution kept warm at 37 degrees C by a constant flow (4 mL/min), while the variable perfusion pressure was measured by means of a pressure transducer. The direct vascular effects of TsV (10 microg/mL/min; n=6), infused at a constant rate (0.1 mL/min), were examined and compared to the infusion of the vehicle alone at the same rate. TsV increased PP (PP30'=127.8+/-0.69 vs PP60'=154.2+/-14 mmHg*, *p<0.05) and RVR (RVR30'=6.29+/-0.25 vs RVR60'=8.03+/-0.82 mmHg/mLg(-1)min(-1)*, *p<0.05), decreased GFR (GFR30'=0.58+/-0.02 vs GFR60'=0.46+/-0.01mLg(-1)min(-1)*, *p<0.05) and UF (UF30'=0.135+/-0.001 vs UF60'=0.114+/-0.003mLg(-1)min(-1)*, *p<0.05). Tubular transport was not affected during the whole experimental period (120 min). On the other hand, the infusion of TsV (10 microg/mL/min) increased the basal perfusion pressure of isolated arteriolar mesenteric bed (basal pressure: 74.17+/-3.42 vs TsV 151.8+/-17.82 mmHg*, *p<0.05). TsV affects renal haemodynamics probably by a direct vasoconstrictor action leading to decreased renal flow.
    Toxicon 10/2005; 46(3):271-6. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An ethyl acetate extract of Spigelia anthelmia (EASa), with validated anthelmintic activity, was evaluated for its acute toxicity and general effects in albino Swiss mice and for neuromuscular relaxant activity in the frog sciatic-gastrocnemius and rectus abdominis preparation. The extract induced a dose-related myotonia and muscular paralysis of rapid onset at higher doses. The calculated LD50 after oral and intraperitoneal administration was 345.9 [241.4-484.7] mg/kg and 60.8 [47.4-80] mg/kg, respectively. In broilers, intramuscular injection of EASa-induced spastic paralysis qualitatively similar to that obtained after succinylcholine administration and contrasting to the flaccid paralysis induced by D-tubocurarine. The contraction elicited by direct stimulation of the gastrocnemius was blocked by EASa by 54.3+/-4.7% (IC50 = 21.4 [11.2-35.8] microg/ml) and the twitches evoked by stimulation of the sciatic nerve were blocked by 69.1+/-7.4% (IC50 = 17.9 [4.5-34.23] microg/ml). EASa also blocked acetylcholine-induced contractions in the frog rectus abdominis by 58.6+/-7.4% (IC50 = 7.4 [1.7-15.28] microg/ml) but did not decrease tonic contractions induced by a high-potassium Ringer solution. In summary, the ethyl acetate extract of Spigelia anthelmia induces tonic paralysis in vivo, and decreases amplitudes of twitches and increases tonus of skeletal muscle in vitro.
    Journal of Ethnopharmacology 07/2004; 92(2-3):257-61. · 2.76 Impact Factor