ABSTRACT: CO(2) sequestration by the aqueous carbonation of steel-making slag under various operational conditions was investigated in this study. The effects of the operational conditions, including type of steel-making slag, reaction time, reaction temperature, and CO(2) flow rate, on the performance of the carbonation process were evaluated. The results indicated that the BOF slag had the highest carbonation conversion, approximately 72%, at a reaction time of 1h, an operating pressure of 101 kPa and a temperature of 60°C due to its higher BET surface area of BOF slag compared to UF, FA, and BHC slags. The major factors affecting the carbonation conversion are reaction time and temperature. The reaction kinetics of the carbonation conversion can be expressed by the shrinking-core model. The measurements of the carbonated material by the SEM and XRD instruments provide evidence indicating the suitability of using the shrinking-core model in this investigation. Comparison of the results with other studies suggests that aqueous carbonation by slurry reactor is viable due to its higher mass transfer rate.
Journal of hazardous materials 02/2011; 186(1):558-64. · 4.14 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy of progressive muscle relaxation training on anxiety in patients with acute schizophrenia.
Many empirical studies have found progressive muscle relaxation training beneficial in reducing the psychological effects of anxiety. Progressive muscle relaxation training is also effective in reducing the distress symptoms associated with the symptomatology of schizophrenia.
An experimental randomised controlled trial using repeated measures.
The study was designed to examine the effects of progressive muscle relaxation training on patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Study participants were acute psychiatric inpatients in Taiwan. Eighteen patients were block randomised and then assigned to an experimental or control group. The experimental group received progressive muscle relaxation training and the control group received a placebo intervention. Results from the Beck anxiety inventory were compared between groups as a pretest before intervention, on day 11 of intervention and one week post-test after the intervention was completed. Changes in finger temperature were measured throughout the experiment.
The degree of anxiety improvement was significantly higher in the progressive muscle relaxation training group than in the control group after progressive muscle relaxation training intervention (p < 0.0001) and at follow-up (p = 0.0446; the mean BAI score fell from 16.4 pretest to -5.8 post-test. After adjusting for the change in patient finger temperature, the mean change in temperature was significantly different between the two patient groups. The average body temperature increased significantly after applying the progressive muscle relaxation training to patients with schizophrenia.
This study demonstrated that progressive muscle relaxation training can effectively alleviate anxiety in patients with schizophrenia.
Progressive muscle relaxation training is potentially an effective nursing intervention in the reduction of anxiety in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, depending on the quality of their mental status at the time of intervention. Progressive muscle relaxation training is a useful intervention as it is proven to reduce anxiety levels across a spectrum of psychiatric disorders.
Journal of Clinical Nursing 09/2009; 18(15):2187-96. · 1.12 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To examine the effects of reminiscence therapy on psychological well-being, depression, and loneliness among institutionalized elderly people.
In an experimental study design, 92 institutionalized elderly people aged 65 years and over were recruited and randomly assigned to two groups. Those participants in the experimental group received reminiscence therapy eight times during 2 months to examine the effects of this therapy on their psychological well-being.
After providing the reminiscence therapy to the elderly in the experimental group, a significant positive short-term effect (3 months follow-up) on depression, psychological well-being, and loneliness, as compared to those in the comparison group was found.
Reminiscence therapy in this study sample improved socialization, induced feelings of accomplishment in participants, and assisted to ameliorate depression.
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 08/2009; 25(4):380-8. · 2.42 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Sepsis is a severe inflammatory disorder that may lead to multiple organ failure. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is associated with Gram-negative sepsis and can activate monocytes and macrophages to release pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), nitric oxide (NO) and anti-inflammatory mediator such as interleukin-10 (IL-10). In this present study, we used fluvastatin, a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, to study its effects upon LPS-induced endotoxic shock in conscious rats.
The experiments were designed that rats received an intravenous injection of 1mg/kg fluvastatin followed 10min later, by an intravenous injection of 10mg/kg Klebsiella pneumoniae LPS, the latter inducing endotoxic shock amongst conscious rats. Subsequently, the levels of certain biochemical variables and cytokines in serum were then measured during the ensuing 48-h period following sepsis. These included total cholesterol (TCH), triglyceride (TG), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cre), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transferase (GOT), alanine transferase (GPT), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-10 and nitric oxide.
LPS significantly increased blood TG, BUN, Cre, LDH, CPK, GOT, GPT, TNF-alpha, IL-10 and NO levels but decreased the blood TCH level. Pretreatment of test rats with fluvastatin decreased blood levels of certain markers of organ injury, suppressed the release of TNF-alpha and increased IL-10, and NO levels following LPS treatment. Fluvastatin did not affect the blood TCH and TG level subsequent to the development of sepsis.
Pre-treatment with fluvastatin suppresses the release of plasma TNF-alpha, increases plasma IL-10, and NO production, and decreases the levels of markers of organ injury associated with endotoxic shock, so ameliorating LPS-induced organ damage amongst conscious rats.
Resuscitation 08/2007; 74(1):166-74. · 3.60 Impact Factor
Journal of Clinical Nursing 03/2005; 14(2):264-5. · 1.12 Impact Factor