[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) are expressed throughout the central nervous system, where they are responsible for the reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter (S)-glutamate (Glu). (1) Recently, we have reported the discovery of the first subtype selective EAAT1 inhibitor 2-amino-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-(naphthalen-1-yl)-5-oxo-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4H-chromene-3-carbonitrile (UCPH-101) (1b) and presented an introductory structure-activity relationship (SAR) study. (2) Here, we present a detailed SAR by the design, synthesis, and pharmacological evaluation of analogues 1g-1t. By comparison of potencies of 1b, 1h, and 1i versus 1j, it is evident that potency is largely influenced by the chemical nature of the R(1) substituent. The study also demonstrates that any chemical change of the functional groups or a change to the parental scaffold results in the complete loss of inhibitory activity of the compounds at EAAT1. Finally, a bioavailability study of UCPH-101 determined the half-life to be 30 min in serum (rats) but also that it was not able to penetrate the blood-brain barrier to any significant degree.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The discovery of the first class of subtype-selective inhibitors of the human excitatory amino acid transporter subtype 1 (EAAT1) and its rat orthologue GLAST is reported. An opening structure-activity relationship of 25 analogues is presented that addresses the influence of substitutions at the 4- and 7-positions of the parental skeleton 2-amino-5-oxo-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4H-chromene-3-carbonitrile. The most potent analogue 1o displays high nanomolar inhibitory activity at EAAT1 and a >400-fold selectivity over EAAT2 and EAAT3, making it a highly valuable pharmacological tool.