[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin gene (INS) mutations have recently been described as a cause of permanent neonatal diabetes (PND). We aimed to determine the prevalence, genetics, and clinical phenotype of INS mutations in large cohorts of patients with neonatal diabetes and permanent diabetes diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adulthood.
The INS gene was sequenced in 285 patients with diabetes diagnosed before 2 years of age, 296 probands with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), and 463 patients with young-onset type 2 diabetes (nonobese, diagnosed <45 years). None had a molecular genetic diagnosis of monogenic diabetes.
We identified heterozygous INS mutations in 33 of 141 probands diagnosed at <6 months, 2 of 86 between 6 and 12 months, and none of 58 between 12 and 24 months of age. Three known mutations (A24D, F48C, and R89C) account for 46% of cases. There were six novel mutations: H29D, L35P, G84R, C96S, S101C, and Y103C. INS mutation carriers were all insulin treated from diagnosis and were diagnosed later than ATP-sensitive K(+) channel mutation carriers (11 vs. 8 weeks, P < 0.01). In 279 patients with PND, the frequency of KCNJ11, ABCC8, and INS gene mutations was 31, 10, and 12%, respectively. A heterozygous R6C mutation cosegregated with diabetes in a MODY family and is probably pathogenic, but the L68M substitution identified in a patient with young-onset type 2 diabetes may be a rare nonfunctional variant.
We conclude that INS mutations are the second most common cause of PND and a rare cause of MODY. Insulin gene mutation screening is recommended for all diabetic patients diagnosed before 1 year of age.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the ABCC8 gene encoding the SUR1 subunit of the pancreatic ATP-sensitive potassium channel cause permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM) and transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM). We reviewed the existing literature, extended the number of cases and explored genotype-phenotype correlations.
Mutations were identified by sequencing in patients diagnosed with diabetes before 6 months without a KCNJ11 mutation.
We identified ABCC8 mutations in an additional nine probands (including five novel mutations L135P, R306H, R1314H, L438F and M1290V), bringing the total of reported families to 48. Both dominant and recessive mutations were observed with recessive inheritance more common in PNDM than TNDM (9 vs. 1; p < 0.01). The remainder of the PNDM probands (n = 12) had de novo mutations. Seventeen of twenty-five children with TNDM inherited their heterozygous mutation from a parent. Nine of these parents had permanent diabetes (median age at diagnosis: 27.5 years, range: 13-35 years). Recurrent mutations of residues R1183 and R1380 were found only in TNDM probands and dominant mutations causing PNDM clustered within exons 2-5.
ABCC8 mutations cause PNDM, TNDM or permanent diabetes diagnosed outside the neonatal period. There is some evidence that the location of the mutation is correlated with the clinical phenotype.