[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During progression of hepatocellular carcinoma, multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations act to posttranslationally modulate the function of proteins that promote cancer invasion and metastasis. To define such abnormalities that contribute to liver cancer metastasis, we carried out a proteomic comparison of primary hepatocellular carcinoma and samples of intravascular thrombi from the same patient. Mass spectrometric analyses of the liver cancer samples revealed a series of acidic phospho-isotypes associated with the intravascular thrombi samples. In particular, we found that Thr567 hyperphosphorylation of the cytoskeletal protein ezrin was tightly correlated to an invasive phenotype of clinical hepatocellular carcinomas and to poor outcomes in tumor xenograft assays. Using phospho-mimicking mutants, we showed that ezrin phosphorylation at Thr567 promoted in vitro invasion by hepatocarcinoma cells. Phospho-mimicking mutant ezrinT567D, but not the nonphosphorylatable mutant ezrinT567A, stimulated formation of membrane ruffles, suggesting that Thr567 phosphorylation promotes cytoskeletal-membrane remodeling. Importantly, inhibition of Rho kinase, either by Y27632 or RNA interference, resulted in inhibition of Thr567 phosphorylation and a blockade to cell invasion, implicating Rho kinase-ezrin signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma cell invasion. Our findings suggest a strategy to reduce liver tumor metastasis by blocking Rho kinase-mediated phosphorylation of ezrin.
Cancer Research 03/2011; 71(5):1721-9. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-4683 · 9.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein is a major component to govern the PML nuclear body (NB) assembly and function. Although it is well defined that PML NB is a site recruiting sumoylated proteins, the mechanism by which PML protein regulates the process remains unclear. Here we show that PML3, a specific PML isoform, interacts with and recruits TIP60 to PML NBs. Our biochemical characterization demonstrates that PML3 physically interacts with TIP60 via its N-terminal 364 amino acids. Importantly, this portion of TIP60 is sufficient to target to the PML NBs, suggesting that PML3-TIP60 interaction is sufficient for targeting TIP60 to the NBs. The PML3-TIP60 interaction is specific, since the region of TIP60 binding is not conserved in other PML isoforms. The physical interaction between PML3 and TIP60 protects TIP60 from Mdm2-mediated degradation, suggesting that PML3 competes with MDM2 for binding to TIP60. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis indicates that the PML3-TIP60 interaction modulates the nuclear body distribution and mobility of TIP60. Conversely, the distribution and mobility of TIP60 are perturbed in PML3-deficient cells, accompanied by aberrations in DNA damage-repairing response. Thus, PML3 orchestrates the distribution, dynamics, and function of TIP60. Our findings suggest a novel regulatory mechanism by which the PML3 and TIP60 tumor suppressors cooperate to ensure genomic stability.