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ABSTRACT: Primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) occurs more commonly in Taiwan than in other western countries. Recurrence of primary ICH after a first episode is not rare. The purpose of this study is to investigate the incidence, risk factors, and prognosis of recurrent primary ICH. From the stroke registration data of Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital (KSVGH), all patients admitted between Jan. 1999 and Dec. 2003 with the discharge diagnosis of ICH were identified. The hospital records and images of each ICH patient were carefully reviewed and the diagnosis was confirmed by one of the investigators. For those patients admitted in this study period with the diagnosis of acute primary ICH who also had past medical history of ICH, the record and image of the past admission were also obtained for review, either from KSVGH or other hospitals. Patients with ICH due to secondary causes were excluded. 585 patients with primary ICH were reviewed. Among them, 34 (5.8%) patients were found to have recurrent primary ICH. The medical records of these 34 patients were obtained for further analysis. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy was diagnosed in 4 (11.7%) patients. Mean ages at the onset of the first and second hemorrhages were 64 +/- 13 and 66 +/- 13 years, respectively. The mean interval between first and second hemorrhages was 33 months (from 1 month to 10 years). The most common location of first-second bleeding was basal ganglion-basal ganglion. The mortality rate in this group was 23.5%. Fifteen (38.2%) patients became totally dependent or vegetative after the second ICH. Recurrent primary ICH is not uncommon. The main location of recurrent bleeding was basal ganglion. This may implicate hypertension as the main cause of ICH. Hypertension is an important risk factor of recurrent primary ICH. Amyloid angiopathy is another cause of recurrent primary ICH. The prognosis after the second hemorrhage is worse, while the mortality and morbidity after first ever primary ICH were 15.6% and 17.9%, respectively.Acta neurologica Taiwanica 07/2007; 16(2):74-80.