[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Image-enhanced endoscopy (IEE) can differentiate neoplastic from non-neoplastic colorectal lesions through indirect analysis of pit patterns and microvascular architecture. We evaluated the accuracy of Flexible Spectral Imaging Color Enhancement (FICE) in differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic lesions and observer agreement in the analysis of capillary pattern of colorectal lesions.
A prospective double-blind trial was conducted in two referral endoscopy centers. Vascular pattern was analyzed by IEE with magnification. Lesions were divided into two groups and examined separately by two experts. Examiners, blinded to each other's interpretations, switched groups and the lesions were reviewed. After 60 days, lesions were reevaluated.
In total, 76 patients were referred to colonoscopy for colon cancer screening. Of 100 colorectal lesions, 88 were neoplastic (73 tubular adenomas, 10 tubulovillous adenomas, 1 villous adenoma, 2 serrated adenomas, 2 adenocarcinomas) and 12 were non-neoplastic (hyperplastic polyps). Mean diameter of the lesions was 6.7 mm. Examiners 1 and 2 had 95 % accuracy. The interobserver kappa coefficient was 0.80 and the intraobserver kappa coefficient was 0.88 for examiner 1 and 0.73 for examiner 2.
IEE with magnification is effective for real-time predictive histological diagnosis of colorectal lesions, with inter- and intraobserver agreement ranging from good to excellent.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context:
The size of colorectal lesions, besides a risk factor for malignancy, is a predictor for deeper invasion objectives: To evaluate the malignancy of colorectal lesions ≥20 mm.
Between 2007 and 2011, 76 neoplasms ≥20 mm in 70 patients were analyzed.
The mean age of the patients was 67.4 years, and 41 were women. Mean lesion size was 24.7 mm ± 6.2 mm (range: 20 to 50 mm). Half of the neoplasms were polypoid and the other half were non-polypoid. Forty-two (55.3%) lesions were located in the left colon, and 34 in the right colon. There was a high prevalence of III L (39.5%) and IV (53.9%) pit patterns. There were 72 adenomas and 4 adenocarcinomas. Malignancy was observed in 5.3% of the lesions. Thirty-three lesions presented advanced histology (adenomas with high-grade dysplasia or early adenocarcinoma), with no difference in morphology and site. Only one lesion (1.3%) invaded the submucosa. Lesions larger than 30 mm had advanced histology (P = 0.001). The primary treatment was endoscopic resection, and invasive carcinoma was referred to surgery. Recurrence rate was 10.6%.
Large colorectal neoplasms showed a low rate of malignancy. Endoscopic treatment is an effective therapy for these lesions.
Arquivos de Gastroenterologia 09/2014; 51(3):235-239. DOI:10.1590/S0004-28032014000300013
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and aims:
Postoperative esophageal strictures frequently recur. We assessed the efficacy of injecting triamcinolone after bougie dilation in comparison to dilation alone.
In a double-blind randomized fashion, 19 patients (68% male with mean age of 53-years old) with non-dilated esophagogastric complex strictures after esophagectomy with gastric pull-up were assigned to receive dilation alone (control) or 40 mg of triamcinolone at the borders of the wall lacerations caused by the bougienage in each dilation session during the study follow-up. Dysphagia and complications were assessed at 1, 2, and 6 months. Primary end-point was to be dysphagia-free.
After 1 month of the beginning of therapy, 4 patients in the steroid group were without dysphagia, in comparison to 0 patient in the control group (P = 0.021). Six months after endoscopic therapy, 62% of the cases in the triamcinolone group versus none in the control group were dysphagia-free (P = 0.009). There was no perforation nor hemorrhage.
Injecting triamcinolone after every dilation session next to or at the borders of the lacerations caused by the dilators, results in a significant improvement or resolution of dysphagia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
Several studies suggest that nonpolypoid lesions (NPLs) show higher aggressiveness, particularly depressed lesions. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of NPLs and presence of advanced histology in a brazilian population.Methods2,067 superficial neoplastic lesions diagnosed in 1,135 patients were analysed. Lesions were classified as polypoid and nonpolypoid (flat and depressed) types, and evaluated for site, size, and histology (adenoma with its grade of dysplasia, or early cancer).ResultsPrevalence of NPLs was 46.5%. NPLs predominated in the right colon (62.9%), while polypoid lesions were detected mainly in the left colon (53.2%) (p<0.001). NPLs had a 34% higher probability of occurring in the right colon than polypoid lesions (p<0.001). NPLs were smaller than polypoid lesions (p=0.03). There were 208 lesions > 10 mm, of which 40 (19.2%) had advanced histology: 13% (18/138) of polypoid lesions; 27.3% (18/66) of flat lesions; and 100% (4/4) of depressed lesions (p<0.001). Among 1,859 neoplasms ≤ 10 mm, only 18 (1%) had advanced histology, and 15 of them were depressed lesions (p<0.001). Advanced histology was more commonly detected in NPLs than in polypoid lesions (p=0.007), with significant difference in size (p<0.001). NPLs showed more advanced histology than polypoid lesions (OR 2.06; p=0.01), especially depressed lesions (OR 36.35; p<0.001). Among all neoplasms, the prevalence of depressed lesions was 2.2%.ConclusionsNPLs showed high prevalence and higher aggressiveness than polypoid lesions, especially the depressed type.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Widespread use of imaging procedures has promoted a higher identification of incidental pancreatic cysts (IPCs). However, little is known as to whether endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) could change the management strategy of patients having IPCs. This study has aimed to evaluate the management impact of EUS-FNA on IPCs.
Material and methods:
Patients with pancreatic cysts (PCs) who were referred to EUS-FNA were recruited prospectively. The referring physicians were questioned about the management strategy for these patients before and after EUS-FNA. The impact of EUS-FNA on management was then evaluated.
A total of 302 PC patients were recruited. Of these, 159 (52.6%) patients had asymptomatic IPCs. The average size was 2.3 cm (range: 0.2-7.1 cm), and 110 patients having smaller than 3 cm sized cysts. Lesions were located in the pancreatic head in 96 (61%) cases, and most patients (94%) had only a single cyst. The final diagnoses, obtained by EUS-FNA (91) and surgery (68), were 93 (58%) benign lesions, 36 (23%) cysts with malignant potential, 14 (9%) noninvasive malignancies, 10 (6%) malignant precursor lesions (PanIN), and 6 (4%) invasive malignancies. Management strategy changed significantly after EUS-FNA in 114 (71.7%) patients: 43% of the cases were referred to surgery, 44% of the patients were discharged from surveillance, and 13% of the cases were given further periodical imaging tests.
EUS-FNA has a management impact in almost 72% of IPCs, with a major influence on the management strategy, either discharge rather than surgical resection or surgery rather than additional follow up.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Metastases to the pancreas are rare, and usually mistaken for primary pancreatic cancers. This study aimed to describe the histology results of solid pancreatic tumours obtained by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for diagnosis of metastases to the pancreas.
In a retrospective review, patients with pancreatic solid tumours and history of previous extrapancreatic cancer underwent EUS-FNA from January/1997 to December/2010. Most patients were followed-up until death and some of them were still alive at the end of the study. The performance of EUS-FNA for diagnosis of pancreatic metastases was analyzed. Symptoms, time frame between primary tumour diagnosis and the finding of metastases, and survival after diagnosis were also analyzed.
37 patients underwent EUS-FNA for probable pancreas metastases. Most cases (65%) presented with symptoms, especially upper abdominal pain (46%). Median time between detection of the first tumour and the finding of pancreatic metastases was 36 months. Metastases were confirmed in 32 (1.6%) cases, 30 of them by EUS-FNA, and 2 by surgery. Other 5 cases were non-metastatic. Most metastases were from lymphoma, colon, lung, and kidney. Twelve (32%) patients were submitted to surgery. Median survival after diagnosis of pancreatic metastases was 9 months, with no difference of survival between surgical and non-surgical cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of EUS-FNA with histology analysis of the specimens for diagnosis of pancreatic metastases were, respectively, 93.8%, 60%, 93.8%, 60% and 89%.
EUS-FNA with histology of the specimens is a sensitive and accurate method for definitive diagnosis of metastatic disease in patients with a previous history of extrapancreatic malignancies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context Pancreatic splenosis is a benign condition which can mimic a pancreatic neoplasm. Objective To describe the role of the endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of pancreatic nodules suspicious for pancreatic splenosis. Method From 1997 to 2011, patients with pancreatic solid tumors suspicious for splenosis by computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging were referred to EUS-FNA. Those cases with pancreatic splenosis confirmed by EUS-FNA or surgery were included. Endosonographic findings and clinicopathologic features were also analysed. Results A total of 2,060 patients with pancreatic solid tumors underwent EUS-FNA. Fourteen (0.6%) cases with pancreatic splenosis were found. After applying exclusion criteria, 11 patients were selected. Most patients were male (7), young (mean age: 42 years) and asymptomatic (8). Endoscopic ultrasound imaging alone suspected pancreatic splenosis in 6 cases, and neuroendocrine tumors in 5 cases. Pancreatic splenosis was found most commonly in the tail, was round, hypoechoic, with homogeneous pattern, regular borders, and with scintigraphy negative for somatostatin receptors. The average diameter of these nodules identified by endoscopic ultrasound was 2.15 cm. Microhistology obtained by EUS-FNA confirmed the diagnosis in 9/10 patients. Conclusion Pancreatic splenosis can be diagnosed by EUS-FNA. Microhistology prevents unnecessary surgeries, and reassures asymptomatic patients with hypoechoic, homogeneous, and well circumscribed pancreatic nodules.
Arquivos de gastroenterologia 03/2013; 50(1):10-4. DOI:10.1590/S0004-28032013000100003
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction. To compare the accuracy of digital and real-time chromoendoscopy for the differential diagnosis of diminutive (<5 mm) neoplastic and nonneoplastic colorectal lesions. Materials and Methods. This is a prospective randomized study comparing the Fujinon intelligent color enhancement (FICE) system (65 patients/95 lesions) and indigo carmine (69 patients/120 lesions) in the analysis of capillary meshwork and pit pattern, respectively. All lesions were less than 5 mm in diameter, and magnification was used in both groups. Histopathology was the gold standard examination. Results. Of 215 colorectal lesions, 153 (71.2%) were adenomas, and 62 were hyperplastic polyps (28.8%). Morphological analysis revealed 132 (61.4%) superficial lesions, with 7 (3.3%) depressed lesions, and 83 (38.6%) protruding lesions. Vascular meshwork analysis using FICE and magnification resulted in 91.7% sensitivity, 95.7% specificity, and 92.6% accuracy in differentiating neoplastic from nonneoplastic lesions. Pit pattern analysis with indigo carmine and magnification showed 96.5% sensitivity, 88.2% specificity, and 94.2% accuracy for the same purpose. Conclusion. Both magnifying virtual chromoendoscopy and indigo carmine chromoendoscopy showed high accuracy in the histopathological diagnosis of colorectal lesions less than 5 mm in diameter.
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy 10/2012; 2012(6):279521. DOI:10.1155/2012/279521
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnifying colonoscopy with indigo carmine dye and the analysis of the capillary and the pit patterns by computed virtual chromoendoscopy (Fujinon Intelligent Color Enhancement, FICE) with magnification are effective for the differential diagnosis of neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. This study aimed to compare the accuracy of virtual and real chromoendoscopy in differentiating neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal lesions.
A prospective randomized trial of magnification colonoscopy with targeted FICE (Group I - 72 patients/111 lesions) versus magnification colonoscopy with targeted indigo carmine dye (Group II - 72 patients/137 lesions) was performed in consecutive patients with lesions 1 cm or less. Histopathology of the specimens was regarded as the gold standard.
In group I, 86 (77.5%) lesions showed an intense vascular pattern (positive capillary meshwork), of which 80 (93%) were histologically confirmed as adenomas. From 25 lesions with negative capillary meshwork, 23 (92%) were non-neoplastic. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values of the capillary meshwork for the differential diagnosis of these lesions was 97.8, 79.3, 92.8, 93 and 92%, respectively. The same parameters for pit pattern analysis by FICE were 92.7, 82.3, 90.1, 93.8 and 80%, respectively. Indigo carmine magnified chromoscopy showed sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values of 97, 88.9, 94.9, 96.1 and 91.4%, respectively in the discrimination between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions.
Magnified virtual chromoendoscopy is as accurate as indigo carmine magnified chromoendoscopy in distinguishing between neoplastic from non-neoplastic small colorectal lesions.
European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology 05/2010; 22(11):1364-71. DOI:10.1097/MEG.0b013e32833a5d63 · 2.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiband imaging (MBI)/Fuji Intelligent Color Enhancement (FICE) is a spectral image processing technology that helps in vivo diagnosis of colorectal neoplasias.
To compare the diagnostic accuracy of the magnification with either the electronic chromoendoscopy or indigo carmine dye in the differential diagnosis of neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal lesions.
Seventy five patients with 157 colorectal lesions were prospectively evaluated. The capillary pattern, as well as the pit pattern according to the Kudo classification, of colorectal lesions were evaluated by means of the FICE system. Absence and presence of meshed capillary networks were labeled as non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions, respectively. Afterwards, indigo carmine 0.8% was instilled and a new evaluation of the pit pattern was carried out.
One hundred and sixteen of the 157 lesions were classified as positive meshed capillary network, 115 of them were confirmed histologically as neoplasia. Other 32 lesions out of 41 with negative meshed capillary network were non-neoplastic. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were, respectively, 92.7%, 97% and 93.6%. Pit patterns I and II were confirmed as non-neoplastic lesions, and patterns III to V were confirmed as neoplasias. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the electronic chromoendoscopy were, respectively, 94.4%, 97% and 94.9%. Meanwhile, the figures for the magnification with indigo carmine were, respectively, 97.6%, 93.9% and 96.8%.
Both methods, either the MBI/FICE system or the use of indigo carmine dye with magnification, achieved a high accuracy for the differential diagnosis between neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal lesions.
Arquivos de gastroenterologia 06/2009; 46(2):111-5.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytological smear is widely employed to analyse specimens obtained from endosonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), but false-negative or inconclusive results may occur. A better diagnostic yield can be obtained from processing cell blocks. We compared the effectiveness of the cell block technique and cytological smear in the diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasms. From January 1997 to December 2006, 611 patients with pancreatic tumors were evaluated by EUS-FNA. Surgery was performed in 356 cases, and the other 255 patients were followed clinically for an average of 12.8 months. In total, 282 (46.2%) patients were evaluated with cytological smears, and 329 (53.8%) were evaluated using only cell blocks. Malignant disease was detected in 352 (57.6%) cases, in which adenocarcinoma accounted for 236 (67%) cases. A benign disease was found in the other 259 cases, including 35.1% focal chronic pancreatitis and 32.4% pseudocysts. Aspiration samples were satisfactory in 595 (97.4%) patients after an average of 2.2 (1-4) passes of the needle. Regardless of the cytopathological examination technique, EUS-FNA confirmed malignancy in 269 of 352 (76.4%) cases, and a benign disease in 257 of 259 (99.2%) cases. For patients who received surgery with histologically confirmed lesions, the sensitivity specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of the smears versus cell blocks in diagnosing pancreatic tumors were 61% versus 85.2% (P<0.001), 100% versus 93.1%, 100% versus 98.4%, 36% versus 55.1% (P=0.046) and 68% versus 86.5% (P<0.001), respectively The cell block technique demonstrated a hig her sensitivity, negative predictive value and accuracy than cytological smears.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report a large series of patients with strictures from different etiologies who underwent dilation without fluoroscopy.
Between 1992 and 2005, 321 patients who underwent 2750 dilation sessions were entered in a database. Dysphagia score, cause and location of the stricture and diameter of the bougies were recorded in every session.
The mean follow-up period was 18.8 months. Stricture was postsurgical in 204 patients, peptic in 60, caustic in 13, postradiotherapy in 13, and from other causes in 31. Clinical response was achieved in 92% of the postsurgical patients; 84% of the caustic injuries; 81% of the peptic patients; and 58% of the radiation injuries (p < 0.05). Absence of dysphagia was obtained in 68, 38, 67 and 27% of these, respectively (p < 0.05). All groups showed a significant improvement in dysphagia score, and 98% of patients in whom a 45F catheter was inserted, achieved clinical response. There were 6 perforations, with 2 deaths.
Endoscopic dilation for benign esophageal strictures without fluoroscopy is safe and effective. Postsurgical patients show excellent results for dilation, and caustic and post-radiotherapy strictures have the worst response. A diameter of 45F is a satisfactory end-point for therapy in the majority of cases.