[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low back pain is a prevalent medical condition that is difficult to diagnose and treat. Current imaging methods are unable to correlate pain reliably with spinal structures, and surgical removal of painful damaged or degenerating disks is technically challenging. A contrast agent specific for the intervertebral disk could assist in the detection, diagnosis, and surgical treatment of low back pain. The styryl pyridinium (FM) fluorophores were characterized and structure-activity relationships between chemical structure and in vivo uptake were established. Two novel FM fluorophores with improved optical properties for imaging the intervertebral disks were synthesized and evaluated in mice, rats, and pigs. After a single systemic injection, eight of eight FM fluorophores provided high-contrast imaging of the trigeminal ganglia, whereas six of eight provided high-contrast imaging of the dorsal root ganglia. Unexpectedly, three of eight FM fluorophores provided high-contrast imaging of annulus fibrosus tissue of the intervertebral disks, confirmed histologically. We present the first known contrast agent specific for the intervertebral disks and identify the chemical structural motif that mediates uptake. FM fluorophores could be used for image-guided surgery to assist in the removal of intervertebral disk and lay the foundation for derivatives for magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are few data comparing the fate of multipotent progenitor cells (MPCs) used in cardiac cell therapy after myocardial infarction (MI). To document in vivo distribution of MPCs delivered by intracoronary (IC) injection.
Using an anterior MI swine model, near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence was used for in vivo tracking of labelled MPCs [mesenchymal stromal (MSCs), bone marrow mononuclear (BMMNCs), and peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMNCs)] cells early after IC injection. Signal intensity ratios (SIRs) of injected over non-injected (reference) zones were used to report NIR fluorescence emission. Following IC injection, significant differences in mean SIR were documented when MSCs were compared with BMMNCs [1.28 +/- 0.10 vs. 0.77 +/- 0.11, P < 0.001; 95% CI (0.219, 0.805), respectively] or PBMNCs [1.28 +/- 0.10 vs. 0.80 +/- 0.14, P = 0.005; 95% CI (0.148, 0.813), respectively]. Differences were maintained during the 60 min tracking period, with only the MSC-injected groups continuously emitting NIR fluorescence (SIR>1). This is correlated with greater cell retention for MSCs relative to mononuclear cells. However, there was evidence of MSC-related vessel plugging in some swine.
Our in vivo NIR fluorescence findings suggest that MPC distribution and retention immediately after intracoronary delivery vary depending on cell population and could potentially impact the clinical efficacy of cardiac cell therapy.
European Heart Journal 08/2009; 30(23):2861-8. DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehp322 · 14.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anastomotic complications such as stenosis and leakage in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract can cause high patient morbidity and mortality. To identify the potential preconditions of these complications intraoperatively, we explored the use of two 700 nm near-infrared (NIR) fluorophores administered intraluminally: (1) chlorella, an over-the-counter herbal supplement containing high concentrations of chlorophyll, and (2) methylene blue (MB). In parallel, we administered the 800 nm NIR fluorophore indocyanine green (ICG) intravenously to assess vascular function. Dual-channel, real-time intraoperative imaging and quantitation of the contrast to background ratio (CBR) were performed under normal conditions or after anastomosis or leakage of the stomach and intestines in 35 kg Yorkshire pigs using the Fluorescence-Assisted Resection and Exploration (FLARE) imaging system. Luminal integrity could be assessed with relatively high sensitivity with either chlorella or MB, although chlorella provided significantly higher CBR. ICG angiography provided assessment of blood perfusion of normal, ischemic, and anastomotic areas of the GI tract. Used simultaneously, 700 nm (chlorella or MB) and 800 nm (ICG) NIR fluorescence permitted independent assessment of luminal integrity and vascular perfusion of the GI tract intraoperatively and in real time. This technology has the potential to identify critical complications, such as anastomotic leakage, intraoperatively, when correction is still possible.