[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This year, the Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award will be shared by Peter Walter and Kazutoshi Mori for discoveries revealing the molecular mechanism of the unfolded protein response, an intracellular quality control system that detects harmful misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum and then signals the nucleus to carry out corrective measures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although tyrosine phosphorylation of extracellular proteins has been reported to occur extensively in vivo, no secreted protein tyrosine kinase has been identified. As a result, investigation of the potential role of extracellular tyrosine phosphorylation in physiological and pathological tissue regulation has not been possible. Here, we show that VLK, a putative protein kinase previously shown to be essential in embryonic development, is a secreted protein kinase, with preference for tyrosine, that phosphorylates a broad range of secreted and ER-resident substrate proteins. We find that VLK is rapidly and quantitatively secreted from platelets in response to stimuli and can tyrosine phosphorylate coreleased proteins utilizing endogenous as well as exogenous ATP sources. We propose that discovery of VLK activity provides an explanation for the extensive and conserved pattern of extracellular tyrosine phosphophorylation seen in vivo, and extends the importance of regulated tyrosine phosphorylation into the extracellular environment. PAPERCLIP:
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The importance of PTEN in cellular function is underscored by the frequency of its deregulation in cancer. PTEN tumor-suppressor activity depends largely on its lipid phosphatase activity, which opposes PI3K/AKT activation. As such, PTEN regulates many cellular processes, including proliferation, survival, energy metabolism, cellular architecture, and motility. More than a decade of research has expanded our knowledge about how PTEN is controlled at the transcriptional level as well as by numerous posttranscriptional modifications that regulate its enzymatic activity, protein stability, and cellular location. Although the role of PTEN in cancers has long been appreciated, it is also emerging as an important factor in other diseases, such as diabetes and autism spectrum disorders. Our understanding of PTEN function and regulation will hopefully translate into improved prognosis and treatment for patients suffering from these ailments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiolipin is a glycerophospholipid found predominantly in the mitochondrial membranes of eukaryotes and in bacterial membranes. Cardiolipin interacts with protein complexes and plays pivotal roles in cellular energy metabolism, membrane dynamics, and stress responses. We recently identified the mitochondrial phosphatase, PTPMT1, as the enzyme that converts phosphatidylglycerolphosphate (PGP) to phosphatidylglycerol, a critical step in the de novo biosynthesis of cardiolipin. Upon examination of PTPMT1's evolutionary distribution, we found a PTPMT1-like phosphatase in the bacterium Rhodopirellula baltica. The purified recombinant enzyme dephosphorylated PGP in vitro. Moreover, its expression restored cardiolipin deficiency and reversed growth impairment in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant lacking the yeast PGP phosphatase, suggesting that it is a bona fide PTPMT1 ortholog. When ectopically expressed, this bacterial PGP phosphatase was localized in the mitochondria of yeast and mammalian cells. Together, our results demonstrate the conservation of function between bacterial and mammalian PTPMT1 orthologs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the recent discovery of a unique class of dual-specificity phosphatases that dephosphorylate glucans, we report an in vitro assay tailored for the detection of phosphatase activity against phosphorylated glucans. We demonstrate that in contrast to a general phosphatase assay utilizing a synthetic substrate, only phosphatases that possess glucan phosphatase activity liberate phosphate from the phosphorylated glucan amylopectin using the described assay. This assay is simple and cost-effective, providing reproducible results that clearly establish the presence or absence of glucan phosphatase activity. The assay described will be a useful tool in characterizing emerging members of the glucan phosphatase family.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein phosphorylation is a fundamental mechanism regulating nearly every aspect of cellular life. Several secreted proteins
are phosphorylated, but the kinases responsible are unknown. We identified a family of atypical protein kinases that localize
within the Golgi apparatus and are secreted. Fam20C appears to be the Golgi casein kinase that phosphorylates secretory pathway
proteins within S-x-E motifs. Fam20C phosphorylates the caseins and several secreted proteins implicated in biomineralization,
including the small integrin-binding ligand, N-linked glycoproteins (SIBLINGs). Consequently, mutations in Fam20C cause an
osteosclerotic bone dysplasia in humans known as Raine syndrome. Fam20C is thus a protein kinase dedicated to the phosphorylation
of extracellular proteins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histophilus somni causes bovine pneumonia and septicemia, but protective immune responses are not well understood and immunodiagnostic methods are not well defined. We previously showed that antibody to a new virulence factor, IbpA, neutralizes cytotoxicity and immunization with a recombinant IbpA domain protects calves against experimental H. somni pneumonia. To further define immune responses to IbpA, we determined isotypic serum antibody responses to three IbpA domains (IbpA3, an N-terminal coiled coil region; IbpA5, a central region of 200 bp repeats and IbpA DR2, a C-terminal cytotoxic domain). ELISA was used to quantitate IgG1 or IgG2 antibodies to each of the IbpA subunits as well as H. somni whole cells (WCs) or culture supernatant (SUP). Calves experimentally infected with H. somni and monitored for up to 10 weeks had the least "0 time" (background) antibody levels to IbpA5, as well as the earliest and highest responses of greatest duration to the IbpA5 subunit. Responses of these calves were high to WC or SUP antigens but with higher "0 time" (background) antibody levels. We concluded that IbpA5 may be a useful immunodiagnostic antigen. Calves immunized with H. somni WC vaccine had antibody responses to WC antigens, but not to IbpA subunits before challenge. After challenge with H. somni, vaccinated calves had slight anamnestic responses to IbpA3 and IbpA5, but not to IbpA DR2. Since IbpA DR2 is a protective antigen, the data suggest the IbpA DR2 would be a useful addition to H. somni vaccines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lafora disease is a fatal, progressive myoclonus epilepsy caused in ~90% of cases by mutations in the EPM2A or EPM2B genes. Characteristic of the disease is the formation of Lafora bodies, insoluble deposits containing abnormal glycogen-like material in many tissues, including neurons, muscle, heart and liver. Because glycogen is important for glucose homeostasis, the aberrant glycogen metabolism in Lafora disease might disturb whole-body glucose handling. Indeed, Vernia et al. [Vernia, S., Heredia, M., Criado, O., Rodriguez de Cordoba, S., Garcia-Roves, P.M., Cansell, C., Denis, R., Luquet, S., Foufelle, F., Ferre, P. et al. (2011) Laforin, a dual-specificity phosphatase involved in Lafora disease, regulates insulin response and whole-body energy balance in mice. Hum. Mol. Genet., 20, 2571-2584] reported that Epm2a-/- mice had enhanced glucose disposal and insulin sensitivity, leading them to suggest that laforin, the Epm2a gene product, is involved in insulin signaling. We analyzed 3-month- and 6-7-month-old Epm2a-/- mice and observed no differences in glucose tolerance tests (GTTs) or insulin tolerance tests (ITTs) compared with wild-type mice of matched genetic background. At 3 months, Epm2b-/- mice also showed no differences in GTTs and ITTs. In the 6-7-month-old Epm2a-/- mice, there was no evidence for increased insulin stimulation of the phosphorylation of Akt, GSK-3 or S6 in skeletal muscle, liver and heart. From metabolic analyses, these animals were normal with regard to food intake, oxygen consumption, energy expenditure and respiratory exchange ratio. By dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan, body composition was unaltered at 3 or 6-7 months of age. Echocardiography showed no defects of cardiac function in Epm2a-/- or Epm2b-/- mice. We conclude that laforin and malin have no effect on whole-body glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and that laforin is not involved in insulin signaling.
Human Molecular Genetics 12/2011; 21(7):1604-10. DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddr598 · 6.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new family of adenylyltransferases, defined by the presence of a Fic domain, was recently discovered to catalyze the addition of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to Rho GTPases (Yarbrough, M. L., Li, Y., Kinch, L. N., Grishin, N. V., Ball, H. L., and Orth, K. (2009) Science 323, 269-272; Worby, C. A., Mattoo, S., Kruger, R. P., Corbeil, L. B., Koller, A., Mendez, J. C., Zekarias, B., Lazar, C., and Dixon, J. E. (2009) Mol. Cell 34, 93-103). This adenylylation event inactivates Rho GTPases by preventing them from binding to their downstream effectors. We reported that the Fic domain(s) of the immunoglobulin-binding protein A (IbpA) from the pathogenic bacterium Histophilus somni adenylylates mammalian Rho GTPases, RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42, thereby inducing host cytoskeletal collapse, which allows H. somni to breach alveolar barriers and cause septicemia. The IbpA-mediated adenylylation occurs on a functionally critical tyrosine in the switch 1 region of these GTPases. Here, we conduct a detailed characterization of the IbpA Fic2 domain and compare its activity with other known Fic adenylyltransferases, VopS (Vibrio outer protein S) from the bacterial pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus and the human protein HYPE (huntingtin yeast interacting protein E; also called FicD). We also included the Fic domains of the secreted protein, PfhB2, from the opportunistic pathogen Pasteurella multocida, in our analysis. PfhB2 shares a common domain architecture with IbpA and contains two Fic domains. We demonstrate that the PfhB2 Fic domains also possess adenylyltransferase activity that targets the switch 1 tyrosine of Rho GTPases. Comparative kinetic and phylogenetic analyses of IbpA-Fic2 with the Fic domains of PfhB2, VopS, and HYPE reveal important aspects of their specificities for Rho GTPases and nucleotide usage and offer mechanistic insights for determining nucleotide and substrate specificities for these enzymes. Finally, we compare the evolutionary lineages of Fic proteins with those of other known adenylyltransferases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new family of adenylyltransferases, defined by the presence of a Fic domain, was recently discovered to catalyze the addition
of adenosine mono-phosphate (AMP) to Rho GTPases (Yarbrough et al., 2009, Science, 323:269; Worby et al., 2009, Mol. Cell,
34:93). This adenylylation event inactivates Rho GTPases by preventing them from binding to their downstream effectors. We
reported that the Fic domain(s) of the protein IbpA from the pathogenic bacterium Histophilus somni adenylylates mammalian
RhoGTPases, RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42, thereby inducing host cytoskeletal collapse, which allows H. somni to breach alveolar barriers
and cause septicemia. The IbpA-mediated adenylylation occurs on a functionally critical tyrosine in the switch 1 region of
these GTPases. Here, we conduct a detailed characterization of IbpAs Fic2 domain and compare its activity to other known
Fic adenylyltransferases, VopS from the bacterial pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus and the human protein HYPE. We also included
the Fic domains of the secreted protein, PfhB2, from the opportunistic pathogen Pasteurella multocida, in our analysis. PfhB2
shares a common domain architecture with IbpA and contains two Fic domains. We demonstrate that the PfhB2 Fic domains also
possess adenylyltransferase activity that targets the switch 1 tyrosine of Rho GTPases. Comparative kinetic and phylogenetic
analyses of IbpA-Fic2 with the Fic domains of PfhB2, VopS, and HYPE reveal important aspects of their specificities for Rho
GTPases and nucleotide usage, and offer mechanistic insights for determining nucleotide and substrate specificities for these
enzymes. Finally, we compare the evolutionary lineages of Fic proteins with those of other known adenylyltransferases.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2011; · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy [LD (Lafora disease)] is a fatal autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in either the EPM2A gene, encoding the dual-specificity phosphatase laforin, or the EPM2B gene, encoding the E3-ubiquitin ligase malin. Previously, we and others showed that laforin and malin form a functional complex that regulates multiple aspects of glycogen metabolism, and that the interaction between laforin and malin is enhanced by conditions activating AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). In the present study, we demonstrate that laforin is a phosphoprotein, as indicated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and we identify Ser(25) as the residue involved in this modification. We also show that Ser(25) is phosphorylated both in vitro and in vivo by AMPK. Lastly, we demonstrate that this residue plays a critical role for both the phosphatase activity and the ability of laforin to interact with itself and with previously established binding partners. The results of the present study suggest that phosphorylation of laforin-Ser(25) by AMPK provides a mechanism to modulate the interaction between laforin and malin. Regulation of this complex is necessary to maintain normal glycogen metabolism. Importantly, Ser(25) is mutated in some LD patients (S25P), and our results begin to elucidate the mechanism of disease in these patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histophilus somni is a prevalent cause of pneumonia and septicemia in cattle. Yet evidence for protection against pneumonia by current vaccines is controversial. We have identified a new H. somni virulence factor, IbpA. Previous studies implicated three likely protective subunits or domains in IbpA (A3, A5, and DR2), which were expressed as recombinant GST fusion proteins and purified for systemic vaccination of calves. After two subcutaneous immunizations, calves were challenged intrabronchially with virulent H. somni strain 2336 and clinical signs were monitored for four days before necropsy. Serum samples were collected throughout. At necropsy, the area of gross pneumonia was estimated, bronchial lavage fluid was collected, lesions were cultured and tissue samples were fixed for histopathology. Results showed that calves immunized with IbpA DR2 had a statistically lower percentage of lung with gross lesions than controls, fewer histologic abnormalities in affected areas and no H. somni isolated from residual pneumonic lesions. Calves immunized with the control GST vaccine, IbpA3 or IbpA5 had larger H. somni positive pneumonic lesions. ELISA results for serum antibodies showed that calves immunized with the IbpA DR2 antigen had high IgG1 and IgG2 and lowest IgE responses to the immunizing antigen. Specific IgG responses were also high in the bronchial lavage fluid. High specific serum IgE responses were previously shown to be associated with more severe pneumonia, but high IgG specific anti-IbpA DR2 responses seem to be critically related to protection. Since the IbpA DR2 Fic motif has been shown to cause bovine alveolar cells to retract, we tested the neutralizing ability of pooled serum from the IbpA DR2 immunized group. This pooled serum reduced cytotoxicity by 75-80%, suggesting that the protection was due to antibody neutralization of IbpA cytotoxicity, at least in part. Therefore, IbpA DR2 appears to be an important protective antigen of H. somni. The study shows, for the first time, that immunization with a purified Fic protein protects against disease in a natural host.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PTPMT1 was the first protein tyrosine phosphatase found localized to the mitochondria, but its biological function was unknown. Herein, we demonstrate that whole body deletion of Ptpmt1 in mice leads to embryonic lethality, suggesting an indispensable role for PTPMT1 during development. Ptpmt1 deficiency in mouse embryonic fibroblasts compromises mitochondrial respiration and results in abnormal mitochondrial morphology. Lipid analysis of Ptpmt1-deficient fibroblasts reveals an accumulation of phosphatidylglycerophosphate (PGP) along with a concomitant decrease in phosphatidylglycerol. PGP is an essential intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway of cardiolipin, a mitochondrial-specific phospholipid regulating the membrane integrity and activities of the organelle. We further demonstrate that PTPMT1 specifically dephosphorylates PGP in vitro. Loss of PTPMT1 leads to dramatic diminution of cardiolipin, which can be partially reversed by the expression of catalytic active PTPMT1. Our study identifies PTPMT1 as the mammalian PGP phosphatase and points to its role as a regulator of cardiolipin biosynthesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphorylation of glycogen has been known for decades; however, the basic metabolic pathways responsible for this modification are unknown. In this issue, Tagliabracci et al. (2011) report the enzyme responsible for incorporating phosphate and the chemical nature of the phosphate linkage, providing a framework for expanding our understanding of a devastating form of epilepsy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Fic family of adenylyltransferases, defined by a core HPFx(D/E)GN(G/K)R motif, consists of over 2,700 proteins found in organisms from bacteria to humans. The immunoglobulin-binding protein A (IbpA) from the bacterial pathogen Histophilus somni contains two Fic domains that adenylylate the switch1 tyrosine residue of Rho-family GTPases, allowing the bacteria to subvert host defenses. Here we present the structure of the second Fic domain of IbpA (IbpAFic2) in complex with its substrate, Cdc42. IbpAFic2-bound Cdc42 mimics the GDI-bound state of Rho GTPases, with both its switch1 and switch2 regions gripped by IbpAFic2. Mutations disrupting the IbpAFic2-Cdc42 interface impair adenylylation and cytotoxicity. Notably, the switch1 tyrosine of Cdc42 is adenylylated in the structure, providing the first structural view for this post-translational modification. We also show that the nucleotide-binding mechanism is conserved among Fic proteins and propose a catalytic mechanism for this recently discovered family of enzymes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Newly recognized Fic family virulence proteins may be important in many bacterial pathogens. To relate cellular mechanisms to pathogenesis and immune protection, we studied the cytotoxicity of the Histophilus somni immunoglobulin-binding protein A (IbpA) direct repeat 2 Fic domain (DR2/Fic) for natural host target cells. Live virulent IbpA-producing H. somni strain 2336, a cell-free culture supernatant (CCS) of this strain, or recombinant DR2/Fic (rDR2/Fic) caused dramatic retraction and rounding of bovine alveolar type 2 (BAT2) epithelial cells. IbpA-deficient H. somni strain 129Pt and a Fic motif His(298)Ala mutant rDR2/Fic protein were not cytotoxic. The cellular mechanism of DR2/Fic cytotoxicity was demonstrated by incubation of BAT2 cell lysates with strain 2336 CCS or rDR2/Fic in the presence of [alpha-(32)P]ATP, which resulted in adenylylation of Rho GTPases and cytoskeletal disruption. Since IbpA is not secreted by type III or type IV secretion systems, we determined whether DR2/Fic entered the host cytoplasm to access its Rho GTPase targets. Although H. somni did not invade BAT2 cells, DR2/Fic was internalized by cells treated with H. somni, CCS, or the rDR2/Fic protein, as shown by confocal immunomicroscopy. Transwell bacterial migration assays showed that large numbers of strain 2336 bacteria migrated between retracted BAT2 cells, but IbpA-deficient strain 129Pt did not cross a monolayer unless the monolayer was pretreated with strain 2336 CCS or rDR2/Fic protein. Antibody to rDR2/Fic or passively protective convalescent-phase serum blocked IbpA-mediated cytotoxicity and inhibited H. somni transmigration across BAT2 monolayers, confirming the role of DR2/Fic in pathogenesis and corresponding to the results for in vivo protection in previous animal studies.
Infection and immunity 02/2010; 78(5):1850-8. DOI:10.1128/IAI.01277-09 · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reversible phosphorylation modulates nearly every step of glycogenesis and glycogenolysis. Multiple metabolic disorders are the result of defective enzymes that control these phosphorylation events, enzymes that were identified biochemically before the advent of the molecular biology era. Lafora disease is a metabolic disorder resulting in accumulation of water-insoluble glucan in the cytoplasm, and manifests as a debilitating neurodegeneration that ends with the death of the patient. Unlike most metabolic disorders, the link between Lafora disease and metabolism has not been defined in almost 100 years. The results of recent studies with mammalian cells, mouse models, eukaryotic algae, and plants have begun to define the molecular mechanisms that cause Lafora disease. The emerging theme identifies a new phosphorylation substrate in glycogen metabolism, the glucan itself.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We show that the secreted antigen, IbpA, of the respiratory pathogen Histophilus somni induces cytotoxicity in mammalian cells via its Fic domains. Fic domains are defined by a core HPFxxGNGR motif and are conserved from bacteria to humans. We demonstrate that the Fic domains of IbpA catalyze a unique reversible adenylylation event that uses ATP to add an adenosine monophosphate (AMP) moiety to a conserved tyrosine residue in the switch I region of Rho GTPases. This modification requires the conserved histidine of the Fic core motif and renders Rho GTPases inactive. We further demonstrate that the only human protein containing a Fic domain, huntingtin yeast-interacting protein E (HYPE), also adenylylates Rho GTPases in vitro. Thus, we classify Fic domain-containing proteins as a class of enzymes that mediate bacterial pathogenesis as well as a previously unrecognized eukaryotic posttranslational modification that may regulate key signaling events.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histophilus somni causes bovine pneumonia as well as septicemia and its sequelae but mechanisms of virulence and protective immunity are poorly understood. Since surface immunoglobulin binding proteins are virulence factors, we addressed their role as protective antigens in a mouse model of H. somni septicemia. Immunoglobulin binding protein A (IbpA), has homology to Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin and other large bacterial exoproteins. IbpA is a major surface antigen encoded by the ibpA gene with many domains that may be important in pathogenesis and immune protection. Three IbpA recombinant protein subunits, IbpA3, IbpA5 and IbpADR2 were chosen for study because of putative functional domains and motifs. These recombinant GST fusion subunit proteins were compared with GST (negative control), formalin-killed H. somni (commercial vaccine control), live H. somni (to induce convalescent immunity) and H. somni culture supernatant (containing IbpA shed from the bacterial surface). In vaccination/challenge studies, both live H. somni (convalescent immunity) and supernatant protected equally but formalin-killed H. somni and GST did not protect against septicemia. The DR2 and A3 subunits protected moderately well and induced antibody responses against supernatant antigen and the homologous subunit in ELISA but not against whole cell antigens. Supernatant immunization protected better than the IbpA subunit antigens and induced high antibody activity against both whole cells and supernatant antigens. The results indicate that culture supernatant antigens or perhaps recombinant IbpA subunits may be useful in H. somni vaccines. These studies also provide insight into the contribution of IbpA domains to pathogenesis of H. somni septicemia.