[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the maternal and perinatal outcomes of patients with placenta previa, after the adoption of a prolonged maternal hospital stay, to those of a 1991 series.
We performed a retrospective study comparing 108 cases of placenta previa hospitalized in the Maternity School Assis Chateaubriand, Universidade Federal do Ceará, during the period from 01/01/2006 to 12/31/2010, with those obtained in 1991, when 101 cases of the pathology were observed at our institution. The following maternal and perinatal data were collected: maternal age, parity, gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, maternal stay length, Apgar scores at the 1st and 5th minutes, birth weight, adequacy of birth weight, neonatal length stay, maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality rates (maternal, fetal, neonatal and perinatal). Statistical analysis was performed using the χ² and Fisher's exact tests. The results were considered significant when p<0.05.
In 1991, placenta previa was found in 1.13% of cases (101/8900). In the present study, the prevalence was 0.43% (108/24726). No maternal death was observed in either series. Regarding the study of 1991, the current patients were significantly younger, with lower parity, were hospitalized longer, had better Apgar scores at 1st and 5th minutes, and had longer neonatal hospitalization. Also, we identified reduction of fetal, neonatal and perinatal mortality.
Perinatal outcomes in patients with placenta previa were significantly improved between 1991 and the years 2006 and 2010. However, we can not say whether this improvement was due to the prolonged maternal hospital stay.
Revista brasileira de ginecologia e obstetrićia: revista da Federação Brasileira das Sociedades de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia 01/2012; 34(1):34-9. DOI:10.1590/S0100-72032012000100007
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interstitial pregnancy sometimes is mistakenly referred to as cornual pregnancy and is frequently confused with angular pregnancy. A strict distinction among these three conditions is clinically important because their findings, management and outcomes are different. We report an unusual case of pregnancy where interstitial pregnancy was diagnosed at 6 weeks of pregnancy, located close to the right cornual portion of the uterus. Prenatal monitoring was carried out until birth at 36 weeks' gestation with uterine conservation. Ultrasound scan and magnetic resonance imaging were realized to confirm the diagnosis and to monitor the evolution.
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research 03/2011; 37(6):641-4. DOI:10.1111/j.1447-0756.2010.01405.x · 0.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It was the aim of this study to evaluate differences in the prognosis of fetuses with absent (AED) and reverse end-diastolic (RED) flow in the umbilical artery based on neonatal outcomes.
We performed a cross-sectional study based on the records of 143 patients attending at Assis Chateaubriand Teaching Maternity between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 2005. Patients were classified according to diagnosis as having either fetal centralization (FC), AED or RED. Obstetrical findings and perinatal outcomes were compared for the 3 groups and between AED and RED by Fisher's exact test. Perinatal outcomes were analyzed quantitatively with logistic or multinomial regression. Odds ratios were calculated for significant risk factors.
There was a statistically significant difference in gestational age at diagnosis, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min, Capurro score, use of surfactant and mechanical ventilation, admission to the neonatal intensive care unit, perinatal and neonatal death. When comparing RED with AED, the odds of neonatal intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation, use of surfactant, neonatal mortality and perinatal mortality were 3.2, 1.4, 1.0, 5.1 and 5.3 times higher for RED. Only perinatal mortality kept statistically significant with odds of 5.2 (p = 0.043) when adjusted by gestational age (multivariate analysis).
The incidence of perinatal mortality was observed to increase with the severity of Doppler findings, with significant differences between the AED and RED groups.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the antenatal and postnatal risk factors of neonatal death in pregnancies with absent (DZ) or reverse (DR) end-diastolic flow in the umbilical artery.
A cross-sectional retrospective study based on data from 48 medical records of singleton pregnancies with DZ or DR, and gestational age of 24 to 34 weeks, at a maternity in the Brazilian Northeast. Mean age was 27.3 (SD: 7.9) years. Twenty (41.7%) patients were primiparas. Hypertensive disorders were found in 44 (91.7%) cases. Thirty-five women (72.9%) had DZ and 13 (27.1%) had DR. Univariate analysis was firstly done (Student's t-test and Fisher's exact test) correlating the parameters with the assessed outcome (neonatal death). Variables that showed significant association were included in the logistic regression model (Wald statistics). The level of significance was set at 5%.
The perinatal mortality rate was 64.6% (31/48). There were five stillbirths and 26 neonatal deaths. The mean gestational age at diagnosis was 27.9 (SD: 2.8) weeks. Deliveries before 24 hours after diagnosis occurred in 52.1% of the cases. Cesarean section was performed in 85.4% of the sample. The newborns weighed 975.9 g on average (SD: 457.5). Twenty-four (57.1%) presented Apgar scores below 7 in the first minute and 21.4% in the fifth minute. Gestational age at diagnosis, birth weight and Apgar of the first minute proved to be variables significantly related to neonatal death (p values were: 0.008, 0.004, and 0.020, respectively). The Odds Ratio was 6.6, 25.3 and 13.8 for neonatal death, when the diagnosis was established at the 28th week, weight was <1000 g and first minute Apgar score was <7, respectively.
Gestational age at diagnosis, birth weight and Apgar score at the first minute were factors that could predict neonatal death in pregnancies with DV or DR determined by umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry.
Revista brasileira de ginecologia e obstetrićia: revista da Federação Brasileira das Sociedades de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia 07/2010; 32(7):352-8. DOI:10.1590/S0100-72032010000700008
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: to compare the effectiveness of low doses of vaginal misoprostol (12.5 versus 25 µg) for induction of labor. METHODS: a double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial was performed in Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Sobral, from May 2005 to April 2006. Sixty-two term pregnant women, with intact membranes and with indication for labor induction, were included. They randomly received 25 µg (32) or 12.5 µg (30) of vaginal misoprostol each four hours, until the maximum of eight doses. Mode of delivery, time between induction and delivery, perinatal complications, and maternal side effects were studied. The control variables were maternal and gestational ages, parity and Bishop score. The statistical tests used were average calculations, shunting line-standards and Student t-test (numerical continuous variables), c2 (categorical variables) and Mann-Whitney test (discrete variables). RESULTS: the two groups, 12.5 and 25 µg, did not differ in relation to the interval of time between the induction onset and delivery (1524 versus 1212 min, p=0.333), in the frequency of vaginal delivery (70 versus 71.8%, p=0.720), Apgar scores below seven at the fifth minute (3,3 versus 6,25%, p=0.533) and tachysystole frequency (3.3 versus 9.3%, p=0.533). The average of total dose administered was significantly higher in the 25 µg group (40 versus 61.2 µg, p=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: vaginal misoprostol in the dose of 12.5 µg was efficient, with collateral effects similar, to the 25 µg of vaginal misoprostol, for induction of labor at term.
Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia 12/2007; 29(12):639-646.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine effectiveness and safety of sublingual misoprostol in tablets of 25 mcg, given every 6 hours for induction of labor in high-risk pregnant women hospitalized in two teaching hospitals in the Northeast of Brazil.
An open, non-randomized clinical trial was conducted, including 40 women with high-risk pregnancies hospitalized at "Maternidade-Escola Assis Chateaubriand" and "Instituto Materno-Infantil de Pernambuco". All of them had gestational age >or= 37 weeks, alive fetus with good vitality and Bishop scores <or= 7. A tablet of 25 mcg of misoprostol was administered every 6 hours, up to a maximum of 4, until active labor. Statistical analysis was performed using the public domain software Epi-Info 3.2.2.
Active labor occurred in 100% of cases after misoprostol administration. The mean (+/-SD) induction-to-labor interval was 4.8(+/-3.8 hours. Interval from induction-to-delivery varied from 8 to 31 hours with 95% of the deliveries occurring in the first 24 hours with 75% of vaginal deliveries. The frequency of tachysystole was 12.5%. The women did not present relevant side effects neither were there any neonatal complications.
The sublingual tablet of misoprostol of 25 mcg was shown to be effective for induction of labor in high-risk pregnant women. The efficacy and acceptability of this new route should be compared to vaginal administration of misoprostol in future prospective randomized clinical trials.
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira 01/2006; 52(4):251-5. · 0.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: to study maternal mortality caused by hypertension during pregnancy, determining the mortality rate and the profile of those patients. METHODS: a retrospective study of maternal mortality caused by hypertension at the Maternidade Escola Assis Chateaubriand of the Universidade Federal do Ceará, from 1981 to 2003. General maternal mortality rate (MMR) and specific maternal mortality rate due to hypertension were evaluated, as well as these patients' epidemiological and clinical data. RESULTS: two hundred and ninety six cases of maternal death and 184,672 of live births were recorded, with a MMR of 160.28/100.000 live births. The most frequent cause of death was hypertension (41.2%); with 122 cases and an annual average of 5.3 deaths, and hypertension MMR of 60.10/100,000 live births. The women's age range varied from 13 to 42 years with an average of 26 years. Most of the patients came from the interior of the state. Deaths occurred predominantly in the first 24 hours after admission to the hospital (50.9%). Deaths were predominant in the first pregnancy (40.3%) and in women with 31 to 38 weeks gestational age (48.2%). Eclampsia occurred in 73 patients (64.1%) and was predominant along the gestational period (53.4%). There were 101 deaths in the puerperium. Cesarean section (62.3%) and general anesthesia (45.1%) prevailed. A high percentage of patients (61.4%) had no prenatal care. CONCLUSIONS: General MMR and hypertension MMR were high, the latter being the main cause of death in our maternity hospital.
Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia 09/2005; 27(9):548-553.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: to evaluate the validity of transverse cerebellar diameter (TCD)/abdominal circumference (AC) ratio in the diagnosis of fetal growth restriction (FGR), determining its best cutoff value and accuracy in symmetric and asymmetric FGR. METHOD: a prospective cross-sectional study, carried out in 250 pregnant women with singleton pregnancies, gestational age between 20 and 42 weeks, with ultrasound confirmation. The TCD measurement was obtained by placing the calipers at the outer margins of the cerebellum, after its localization in the posterior fossa, and slightly rotating the transducer below the plane of the thalami. The abdominal circumference was measured at the on junction of the left portal and umbilical veins. The best TCD/AC cutoff ratio was established by the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve. Neonates with TCD/AC ratio greater than the cutoff value were diagnosed as having FGR. We classified as gold standard for FGR the newborn infants who presented birth weight below the 10th percentile. Neonates showing FGR and Rohrer ponderal index between 2.2 and 3 were labeled as symmetric and below 2.2, asymmetric. RESULTS: the cutoff value calculated by the ROC curve for TCD/AC ratio was 16.15. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values, and likelihood ratio for positive and negative tests were 77.4, 82.6, 38.7, 96.3, 82, 4.5 and 3.7%, respectively. In the symmetric FGR, sensitivity and specificity were 80.8 and 81.7%, respectively. In the asymmetric FGR, sensitivity and specificity were 60 and 75%, respectively. CONCLUSION: TCD/AC ratio is an effective method in symmetric and asymmetric FGR diagnosis.
Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia 08/2004; 26(7):535-541. DOI:10.1590/S0100-72032004000700005
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: to determine the main factors associated with vaginal delivery in high-risk pregnant women submitted to labor induction with vaginal misoprostol (50 µg). METHODS: this is a secondary analysis of an open nonrandomized clinical trial that included 61 high-risk pregnant women admitted at the "Maternidade-Escola Assis Chateaubriand", Fortaleza (Ceará). All women had singleton pregnancies with alive fetuses, gestational age >37 weeks and Bishop scores <7. Misoprostol was vaginally administered at doses of 50 µg every 6 h for a maximum of four doses. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to determine association between vaginal delivery (dependent variable) and independent variables (predictive), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed for parity and Bishop scores. RESULTS: parity (one or more previous deliveries), Bishop scores >4 and interval induction to delivery <6 h were significantly associated with vaginal delivery, while tachysystole reduced the probability of vaginal delivery. A multivariate stepwise logistic regression was then performed to evaluate each of these as independent predictors. Parity (OR = 5.41, 95% CI = 4.18-6.64) and Bishop score >4 (OR = 3.30, 95% CI = 2.15-4.45) were significant independent predictors for vaginal delivery. In the ROC curve for parity and Bishop score, sensitivity of 63.2% and positive predictive value of 100% were found. The area under the ROC curve was 86.8%, significantly higher than 50% (p=0.023). CONCLUSIONS: the most important predictive factors for vaginal delivery after induction with misoprostol were parity and Bishop score. These characteristics should be considered when choosing schemes and doses of misoprostol for cervical ripening and labor induction.
Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia 02/2004; 26(1):21-29.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJETIVO: avaliar se o misoprostol por via retal constitui método efetivo para indução do parto em gestantes com amniorrexe prematura a termo. MÉTODOS: realizou-se estudo piloto, incluindo 32 gestantes com amniorrexe prematura entre 36 e 41 semanas, feto vivo e único, em apresentação cefálica, escore de Bishop <6 e sem contrações de trabalho de parto. Todas receberam misoprostol retal (comprimidos de 50 mg) a cada 4 horas até deflagração do trabalho de parto. Pacientes com tempo de bolsa rota >18 horas receberam antibiótico (penicilina cristalina) para profilaxia de infecção estreptocócica. Analisaram-se desfechos diversos como intervalo entre indução e início do trabalho de parto, entre indução e parto, incidência de taquissistolia, tipo de parto, incidência de corioamnionite e resultados neonatais. A análise estatística foi realizada no programa de domínio público Epi-Info 2002, calculando-se médias com os respectivos desvios-padrão, além de distribuições de freqüência. Realizou-se análise de sobrevivência para determinação do percentual de partos em função do tempo transcorrido (em horas) desde a administração do primeiro comprimido. RESULTADOS: os intervalos (média ± desvio padrão) entre indução e início das contrações e entre indução e parto foram de, respectivamente, 299,8±199,9 e 681±340,5 minutos. Observou-se freqüência de 9,4% de taquissistolia. Cerca de 72% das pacientes evoluíram para parto vaginal. Diagnosticou-se corioamnionite em 12,5% dos casos. As medianas dos escores de Apgar foram de 8 e 9 no primeiro e quinto minuto, respectivamente. Não houve nenhum caso de Apgar <7 no quinto minuto. Sepse foi constatada em 12,5% dos recém-nascidos. CONCLUSÕES: a indução do parto com misoprostol retal foi efetiva em pacientes com amniorrexe prematura, constatando-se 72% de partos vaginais e baixa freqüência de corioamnionite. Estes achados precisam ser confirmados em grandes ensaios clínicos controlados.
Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia 08/2003; 25(7):491-499. DOI:10.1590/S0100-72032003000700005
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: to evaluate maternal and perinatal outcomes of premature rupture of membranes up to the 26th week of gestation. METHODS: retrospective analysis of the cases of premature rupture of membranes up to the 26th week of gestation, without signs of labor or treatment for this condition before admission, followed up at the Obstetric Pathology Infirmary of the "Maternidade Escola Assis Chateaubriand", Federal University of Ceará, from January 1994 to December 1999. The cases with gestational age less than 22 weeks and birth weight lower than 500 g were excluded. Premature rupture of membranes was confirmed by sterile speculum examination. In doubt, amniotic fluid crystallization test and pH determination were performed. All pregnant women underwent ultrasound examination to determine gestational age and amniotic fluid volume. Data concerning the result of gestation and consequences for the mother, fetus and neonate were analyzed. RESULTS: a total of 29 cases of premature rupture of membranes fulfilled inclusion criteria. The mean gestational age at rupture of membranes was 22 weeks. The mean duration of the latency period was 21.7 days. There Were 22 spontaneous vaginal and 3 induced deliveries, besides 4 cesarean sections. In six pregnant women there were signs of infection before labor. Antibiotics were administered in 37.9% of the cases and corticosteroids in 6.9%. No patient underwent tocolysis. There were 3 fetal and 25 neonatal deaths. Only one infant survived. This child remained at the neonatal care unit for 19 days due to infection and respiratory distress syndrome. There was no maternal death. CONCLUSION: the premature rupture of membranes up to the 26th week of gestation has been a fatal discase for fetuses and newborns in our institution.
Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia 03/2003; 25(2):109-114.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objetivo: determinar a presença de infecção assintomática do líquido amniótico em gestantes, identificar os agentes bacterianos envolvidos na infecção e determinar o perfil de suscetibilidade a antimicrobianos in vitro. Métodos: foram obtidas 81 amostras de líquido amniótico, colhidas por amniocentese, em gestantes sem sinais de trabalho de parto e sem suspeita clínica de infecção, atendidas na Maternidade Escola Assis Chateaubriand, entre agosto/97 e janeiro/99. Pesquisou-se a presença de bactérias aeróbias, anaeróbias estritas/facultativas e micoplasmas genitais. As bactérias anaeróbias foram identificadas pelo sistema ATBÒ (Bio-Mérieux) e os micoplasmas pelo kit Micoplasmas ISTÒ (Bio-Mérieux). Resultados: entre as amostras obtidas, oito (9,8%) apresentaram culturas positivas, sendo que em duas foram identificadas duas espécies bacterianas. Os patógenos isolados foram: Ureaplasma urealyticum (7 casos, 8,6%), Mycoplasma hominis (1 caso, 1,2%) e Peptostreptococcus sp (2 casos 2,4%). O padrão de resistência aos antimicrobianos caracterizou-se pela maior resistência dos micoplasmas à eritromicina (37,5%) e nenhuma resistência às ciclinas. Conclusões: o percentual de infecções assintomáticas foi muito elevado, havendo necessidade de serem realizadas novas pesquisas para avaliar as conseqüências da infecção subclínica nas grávidas e em seus conceptos, que envolvam métodos que identifiquem micoplasmas genitais, já que foram as bactérias mais freqüentemente isoladas.
Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia 12/2001; 24(3):175-179.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objetivo: avaliar os parâmetros ultra-sonográficos associados ao incremento da mortalidade perinatal em casos de hidrocefalia fetal. Métodos: foram avaliados 45 casos de hidrocefalia acompanhados entre janeiro/1996 e dezembro/1999. A hidrocefalia foi diagnosticada quando a relação entre a mensuração dos ventrículos laterais e os hemisférios cerebrais correspondentes foi superior a 0,35 ou quando a medida do átrio dos ventrículos laterais foi superior a 10 mm. Em todos os exames definiu-se o tipo, gravidade, simetria, evolução e época do diagnóstico da hidrocefalia. As pacientes foram submetidas a ultra-som morfológico na busca de outras alterações anatômicas. O índice de líquido amniótico e os óbitos fetais foram registrados. Os principais achados ultra-sonográficos foram correlacionados à mortalidade perinatal. Utilizaram-se, para análise estatística, o teste do c2 e o teste exato de Fisher. O valor de p<0,05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados: nos casos analisados houve 20 óbitos (44,4%), sendo 6 intra-útero e 14 neonatais. O diagnóstico da hidrocefalia foi efetuado, em média, na 29a semana. Não evidenciamos associação entre a mortalidade perinatal e as alterações do volume de líquido amniótico, a época de diagnóstico, simetria e tipo de hidrocefalia e a presença de outras anomalias intra ou extracranianas. Por outro lado, a gravidade da doença associou-se significativamente com a morte perinatal (p<0,0001). Conclusão: entre todos os parâmetros ultra-sonográficos analisados, apenas a gravidade da hidrocefalia apresentou associação estatística com a morte perinatal.
Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia 07/2001; 23(6):383-390.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A doença de Wilson (degeneração hepatolenticular) é distúrbio autossômico recessivo raro que usualmente ocorre entre a primeira e terceira décadas de vida. Caracteriza-se por depósito excessivo de cobre no fígado e cérebro e é fatal se não diagnosticada e tratada precocemente. Os autores descrevem um caso de gravidez e doença de Wilson, mostrando a evolução satisfatória de uma paciente que fez uso da D-penicilamina até a sétima semana de gestação, quando a suspendeu por conta própria, e após a vigésima semana gestacional. A mãe evoluiu sem sinais de descompensação clínica ou obstétrica. O recém-nascido não apresentou nenhuma intercorrência e encontrava-se bem no final do primeiro ano de vida.
Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia 06/2001; 23(5):329-332.