C Murray Skeaff

University of Otago , Dunedin, Otago, New Zealand

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Publications (86)315.95 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 genotype is associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. In community surveys, older adults with this genotype have been found to have lower scores on neuropsychological tests than those who do not. It is possible that this is the consequence of subclinical changes in cognition in those persons who later develop dementia. The aim of this research was to determine whether the effect of APOE genotype on cognition would remain if those who subsequently became demented were retrospectively removed from the analysis of the baseline test data from a sample of healthy adults. Method: A sample of 241 nondemented persons over the age of 65 for whom APOE genotyping was available were administered a range of neuropsychological tests at baseline and were followed up 10 years later. Results: Significant differences between the ε4-present and ε4-absent groups were found for the delayed recall trial of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and the Trail Making Test. When those participants known to have developed dementia during the follow-up period were excluded from the analysis of the baseline data these differences disappeared. A total of 113 nondemented survivors from the original sample were retested, and no difference was found in the rate of decline on any measure between the ε4-present and ε4-absent groups. Conclusions: It is likely that the reported effect of the ε4 APOE genotype on cognition is the consequence of the ε4-present group containing persons whose cognition is subtly affected by the early stages of a dementing process. It is also unlikely that the presence of the ε4 allele by itself leads to a significantly accelerated rate of cognitive decline in the nondemented elderly.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 07/2014; · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Erythrocytes, compared with plasma, are considered more robust markers of n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake, because dietary-induced change in fatty acid composition takes longer to complete. The extent to which this applies to intakes of saturated fatty acid (SFA) or n-6 PUFA is unclear. We compared the pattern of change over time in the fatty acid (FA) composition of plasma, erythrocyte, buccal cell, and adipose tissue lipids when changing between diets high in SFA or n-6 PUFA. Twenty-four (n = 7 male) healthy participants were instructed to consume either an SFA-rich (18% energy) or n-6 PUFA-rich (10% energy) diet for 8 wk before crossing over, without washout, to the alternate diet. The FA composition of plasma triacylglycerol (TG), nonesterified FAs, cholesterol ester, total phospholipids, erythrocyte total phospholipids, erythrocyte phosphatidylcholine, and buccal cell total phospholipids was measured every 2 wk and adipose tissue TG every 4 wk during the 16-wk intervention. Linoleic acid composition of plasma, erythrocyte, and buccal cell lipids increased (P < 0.01) during the first 2 wk of the n-6 PUFA diet and remained unchanged during the remaining 6 wk. During the 8-wk SFA diet, the same pattern of change over time occurred for the pentadecanoic acid composition of plasma and erythrocyte lipids; however, the pentadecanoic acid composition of buccal cell lipids did not differ between the diet periods. There were no differences in linoleic or pentadecanoic acid composition of adipose tissue TG. These results suggest plasma and erythrocyte FAs reflect intakes of SFA and n-6 PUFA over a similar period of time.
    Journal of Nutrition 11/2013; · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: National data on the blood folate status of New Zealand adults is lacking. The objective of this study was to describe the blood folate status and examine the predictors of blood folate status in a national sample of adults from New Zealand, a country with voluntary folic acid fortification. The 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey was a nationwide multistage systematic random cross-sectional survey. Serum and erythrocyte folate concentrations were measured by microbiologic assay. The survey included 4721 participants aged ≥15 y, 3359 of whom provided a nonfasting blood sample. Biochemical folate status was measured in 3277 participants. The median serum and erythrocyte folate concentrations were 23 and 809 nmol/L, respectively. The prevalence of biochemical folate deficiency, defined as plasma folate <6.8 nmol/L or erythrocyte folate <305 nmol/L, was 2%. Having breakfast daily compared with never eating breakfast was associated with 53% higher serum and 25% higher erythrocyte folate concentrations; consumers of fortified yeast extract spread had 17% higher serum and 14% higher erythrocyte folate concentrations than nonconsumers; daily users of folate-containing supplements compared with nonusers had 48% higher serum and 28% higher erythrocyte folate concentrations. The prevalence of biochemical folate deficiency in New Zealand adults is low. Participants who ate breakfast more frequently, consumed folate-fortified yeast, or used a daily folate supplement had higher blood folate concentrations.
    Journal of Nutrition 10/2013; · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sedentary behavior is a risk factor for cardiometabolic disease. Regularly interrupting sedentary behavior with activity breaks may lower this risk. We compared the effects of prolonged sitting, continuous physical activity combined with prolonged sitting, and regular activity breaks on postprandial metabolism. Seventy adults participated in a randomized crossover study. The prolonged sitting intervention involved sitting for 9 h, the physical activity intervention involved walking for 30 min and then sitting, and the regular-activity-break intervention involved walking for 1 min 40 s every 30 min. Participants consumed a meal-replacement beverage at 60, 240, and 420 min. The plasma incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for insulin differed between interventions (overall P < 0.001). Regular activity breaks lowered values by 866.7 IU · L(-1) · 9 h(-1) (95% CI: 506.0, 1227.5 IU · L(-1) · 9 h(-1); P < 0.001) when compared with prolonged sitting and by 542.0 IU · L(-1) · 9 h(-1) (95% CI: 179.9, 904.2 IU · L(-1) · 9 h(-1); P = 0.003) when compared with physical activity. Plasma glucose iAUC also differed between interventions (overall P < 0.001). Regular activity breaks lowered values by 18.9 mmol · L(-1) · 9 h(-1) (95% CI: 10.0, 28.0 mmol · L(-1) · 9 h(-1); P < 0.001) when compared with prolonged sitting and by 17.4 mmol · L(-1) · 9 h(-1) (95% CI: 8.4, 26.3 mmol · L(-1) · 9 h(-1); P < 0.001) when compared with physical activity. Plasma triglyceride iAUC differed between interventions (overall P = 0.023). Physical activity lowered values by 6.3 mmol · L(-1) · 9 h(-1) (95% CI: 1.8, 10.7 mmol · L(-1) · 9 h(-1); P = 0.006) when compared with regular activity breaks. Regular activity breaks were more effective than continuous physical activity at decreasing postprandial glycemia and insulinemia in healthy, normal-weight adults. This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials registry as ACTRN12610000953033.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 06/2013; · 6.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A genetic variant at codon 200 (Pro200Leu) of the gene encoding for glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), a selenium-dependent enzyme, is associated with lower enzyme activity; however, the evidence is limited to in vitro and observational studies. Objective: The objective was to determine whether the GPx1 Pro200Leu genetic variants modify the response of whole-blood glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity to selenium supplementation in patients with coronary artery disease in New Zealand. The results from 2 parallel-design, double-blind trials were combined. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a daily supplement of 100 μg Se as l-selenomethionine (n = 129) or placebo (n = 126) for 12 wk. Plasma selenium and whole-blood GPx activity were measured at baseline and at week 12. Participants were genotyped for the GPx1 Pro200Leu polymorphism. Selenium supplementation increased whole-blood GPx activity by 5 (95% CI: 4, 7) U/g hemoglobin (P < 0.001); however, the magnitude of the increase did not differ by genotype (P = 0.165 for treatment-by-genotype interaction). In an exploratory analysis, a significant nutrient-gene interaction was apparent when baseline plasma selenium concentrations were included in the regression model (P = 0.006 for treatment-by-genotype × baseline selenium concentration interaction). Increases in GPx activity were 2-fold higher in Pro homozygotes than in participants carrying a Leu allele when baseline selenium concentrations were ≤1.15 μmol/L (P < 0.05). These results indicate that GPx1 Pro200Leu variants do not substantially modify the response of whole-blood GPx to selenium supplementation in individuals with relatively high plasma selenium concentrations. A nutrient-gene interaction was observed when the baseline selenium concentration was low, but this requires independent confirmation. This trial was registered at www.actr.org.au as ACTRN12605000412639 and ACTRN12606000197538.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 09/2012; 96(4):923-31. · 6.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Daily supplementation with folate increases erythrocyte folate concentrations; however, the time to reach steady-state concentrations has not been empirically demonstrated. Previous predictions of time to steady state or time to 90% steady-state concentration, based on modeling changes in erythrocyte folate during short-term trials, range widely from 40 to 86 wk. We sought to determine the time to steady-state erythrocyte folate concentrations following the initiation of daily folate supplementation using data collected from a 2-y, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial involving 276 participants aged 65 y or older. The daily supplement contained 1 mg of folate. Erythrocyte folate concentrations were measured, using a microbiological assay, at baseline and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo. The mean plasma and erythrocyte folate concentrations in the folate-supplemented group were higher than in the placebo group at 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo (P < 0.001). Adjusted for baseline differences, the difference in erythrocyte folate concentrations between the folate and placebo group at 6 mo was 1.78 μmol/L (95% CI: 1.62-1.95 μmol/L). The difference increased significantly to 2.02 μmol/L (95% CI: 1.85-2.18 μmol/L) at 12 mo. This difference (between the folate and placebo groups) did not significantly change after a further year of folate supplementation; at 18 mo, it was 2.09 μmol/L (95% CI: 1.92-2.27 μmol/L) and at 24 mo it was 1.98 μmol/L (95% CI: 1.18-2.15 μmol/L). Twelve months of daily folate supplementation with 1 mg is sufficient time to cause erythrocyte folate concentrations to reach a new steady state.
    Journal of Nutrition 07/2012; 142(9):1633-7. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between total fat intake and body weight in adults and children. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to June 2010. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials and cohort studies of adults or children that compared lower versus usual total fat intake and assessed the effects on measures of body fatness (body weight, body mass index, or waist circumference) after at least six months (randomised controlled trials) or one year (in cohorts). Randomised controlled trials with any intention to reduce weight in participants or confounded by additional medical or lifestyle interventions were excluded. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were extracted and validity was assessed independently and in duplicate. Random effects meta-analyses, subgroups, sensitivity analyses, and metaregression were done. RESULTS: 33 randomised controlled trials (73 589 participants) and 10 cohort studies were included, all from developed countries. Meta-analysis of data from the trials suggested that diets lower in total fat were associated with lower relative body weight (by 1.6 kg, 95% confidence interval -2.0 to -1.2 kg, I(2)=75%, 57 735 participants). Lower weight gain in the low fat arm compared with the control arm was consistent across trials, but the size of the effect varied. Metaregression suggested that greater reduction in total fat intake and lower baseline fat intake were associated with greater relative weight loss, explaining most of the heterogeneity. The significant effect of a low fat diet on weight was not lost in sensitivity analyses (including removing trials that expended greater time and attention on low fat groups). Lower total fat intake also led to lower body mass index (-0.51 kg/m(2), 95% confidence interval -0.76 to -0.26, nine trials, I(2)=77%) and waist circumference (by 0.3 cm, 95% confidence interval -0.58 to -0.02, 15 671 women, one trial). There was no suggestion of negative effects on other cardiovascular risk factors (lipid levels or blood pressure). GRADE assessment suggested high quality evidence for the relation between total fat intake and body weight in adults. Only one randomised controlled trial and three cohort studies were found in children and young people, but these confirmed a positive relation between total fat intake and weight gain. CONCLUSIONS: There is high quality, consistent evidence that reduction of total fat intake has been achieved in large numbers of both healthy and at risk trial participants over many years. Lower total fat intake leads to small but statistically significant and clinically meaningful, sustained reductions in body weight in adults in studies with baseline fat intakes of 28-43% of energy intake and durations from six months to over eight years. Evidence supports a similar effect in children and young people.
    BMJ (online) 01/2012; 345:e7666. · 17.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D insufficiency during pregnancy has been associated with a number of adverse outcomes for both mother and child. Vitamin D insufficiency has been well described in many populations of both pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age, but there is a lack of data on women living in South-East Asia. We measured plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a representative sample of pregnant (n=64) and non-pregnant (n=477) women (15-49 years) living in Hanoi City (n=270) and rural Hai Duong Province (n=271) in northern Vietnam. Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D (95% confidence interval) concentration was 81 (79, 84)nmolL(-1) . Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration differed between urban and rural (78 vs. 85nmolL(-1) ; P=0.016), farming and non-farming (89 vs. 77nmolL(-1) ; P<0.001) but not pregnant and non-pregnant or older vs. younger women. Only one woman had a 25-hydroxyvitamin D less than 25nmolL(-1) , a concentration indicative of vitamin D deficiency. Of the women, 7% and 48% of the women were vitamin D insufficient based on cut-offs for plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D of 50 and 75nmolL(-1) , respectively. Mean plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of these Vietnamese women were much higher than those reported in other studies of pregnant and non-pregnant women in the region.
    Maternal and Child Nutrition 11/2011; 8(4):533-9. · 2.11 Impact Factor
  • The New Zealand medical journal 01/2011; 124(1340):89-92.
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    C Murray Skeaff, Rod Jackson
    Journal of primary health care 01/2011; 3(4):320-1.
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    ABSTRACT: Serum fatty acids are increasingly used in cross-sectional surveys and cohort studies as biomarkers of dietary fat intake; however, it is currently difficult to judge whether an individual has low or high fatty acid status, or whether the distribution of fatty acids of a group of people is low or high due to a lack of appropriate reference values. In the absence of interpretive criteria, the distribution of serum fatty acids from a suitable reference population can be used as an alternative. We describe the distribution of the fatty acid composition of the three most commonly reported lipid classes in serum; cholesterol ester, phospholipid and triacylgycerol. Results for each serum lipid class are presented as means (SD) and percentiles (5, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90, and 95) of serum fatty acids in non-fasting blood samples collected from a population based cross-sectional survey of New Zealand adults (n = 2793). These serum fatty acid reference ranges are applicable and relevant to Australia, United Kingdom, and United States as well as other countries where fat intakes are similar to New Zealand.
    Nutrients 01/2011; 3(1):152-63. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The assessment of suspected dementia often involves the analysis of change scores from neuropsychological tests administered on two occasions. Frequently, no information is available to allow the significance of a change to be evaluated. Our aim was to prepare data useful for estimating the statistical significance of retest changes for persons older than the age of 65 on the Ruff 2 and 7 Selective Attention Test, one of the few paper-and-pencil tests of attention available to the clinician. The sample tested was composed of 234 healthy adults taking part in a randomized double-blind trial of the effect on cognitive performance of lowering homocysteine using dietary supplements, during which no treatment effects were detected. The test was found to be sensitive to the effects of aging and was well tolerated by our sample of older adults. Retest reliability for the speed of visual search for digit targets (2 and 7) under both the same category (other digits) and different category (letter) distracter conditions was high, and the practice effects during a 12-month period were substantial. Test-retest data with a 1-year interval were used to estimate reliability coefficients and to calculate Reliable Change indices useful for evaluating persons with suspected dementia. The rate of decline in search speed as a function of age was the same for both distraction conditions, suggesting that older persons used a controlled serial search process for targets in both conditions of this test.
    Applied Neuropsychology 10/2010; 17(4):239-45. · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Wholegrain intake is inversely related to weight gain over time, but little information is available on the role of pulses in weight control. To compare weight loss, metabolic outcomes, and nutrient intakes in obese people assigned to a diet rich in pulses and wholegrains or a control diet. Randomized controlled study of 18 months with 113 volunteers (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 28 kg/m(2)). Diets were based on guidelines published by the National Heart Foundation of New Zealand. The intervention group was advised to consume 2 serves of pulses and 4 serves of wholegrain foods per day as substitutions for more refined carbohydrates. Fiber intakes were higher, intakes of several vitamins and minerals were better maintained, and dietary glycemic index was lower in the intervention compared with the control group. Mean (standard error [SE]) weight loss at 6 months was 6.0 (0.7) kg and 6.3 (0.6) kg in the control and intervention groups, respectively, and was not different between groups (p > 0.05). Blood pressure, triglycerides, and glycemic load were lowered in both groups compared with baseline. Waist circumference was decreased at 18 months in the intervention compared with the control group (-2.8 cm; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.4, -5.1). Incorporation of pulses and wholegrain foods into a weight loss program resulted in a greater reduction in waist circumference compared with the group consuming a control diet, although no difference in weight loss was noted between groups. Retention of several nutrients was better with the pulse and wholegrain diet.
    Journal of the American College of Nutrition 08/2010; 29(4):365-72. · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is a risk factor for vascular disease but lowering tHcy with B-vitamins, including folate, has generally not reduced vascular events in secondary prevention trials. Elevated plasma S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy) concentration may be a more sensitive indicator of vascular disease than plasma tHcy. However, unlike tHcy, plasma AdoHcy did not correlate with folate concentration in one study indicating that folate supplementation may not lower AdoHcy. Our aim was to determine whether providing B-vitamin supplements to healthy older people with elevated tHcy (>13 micromol/l) affects plasma AdoHcy and S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) concentrations. Healthy older participants (n 276; > or = 65 years) were randomised to receive a daily supplement containing folate (1 mg), vitamin B12 (500 microg) and vitamin B6 (10 mg), or placebo, for 2 years. Of these participants, we selected the first fifty participants in each treatment group and measured plasma AdoHcy and AdoMet. Plasma tHcy was 4.4 (95 % CI 3.2, 5.6; P < 0.001) micromol/l lower at 2 years in the vitamins group compared with the placebo group. At 2 years, there were no significant differences in plasma AdoMet (+4 % (95 % CI - 2, 11); P = 0.19), AdoHcy ( - 1 % (95 % CI - 10, 8); P = 0.61) or the AdoMet:AdoHcy ratio (0.22 (95 % CI - 0.04, 0.49); P = 0.10) between the two groups. In conclusion, B-vitamin supplementation of older people lowered plasma tHcy but had no effect on plasma AdoMet or AdoHcy concentration. If elevated plasma AdoHcy is detrimental, this may explain why B-vitamins have generally failed to reduce vascular events in clinical trials.
    The British journal of nutrition 06/2010; 103(11):1629-34. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    Tim J Green, C Murray Skeaff, Jennifer E Rockell
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    ABSTRACT: Low vitamin D status in women of childbearing age may have implications for health. Vitamin D status of New Zealanders (NZ), based on low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) is suboptimal. Vitamin D status may be improved with supplements and/or fortified foods. Recently an Adequate Intake (AI) for Australia and NZ was set at 5 microg/d vitamin D. We aimed to determine the effect of daily consumption of milk powder fortified with 5 microg vitamin D3 on serum 25OHD concentration over 12 wks. 73 non-pregnant women (18 - 47 y) living in Dunedin, NZ (46 degrees S) were randomised to receive either unfortified (control) or fortified (5 microg vitamin D3) milk for 12 wks from January to April. Mean 25OHD was similar between groups at week 0 (control 74 vs 76 nmol/L) and fell significantly in both groups over the 12 weeks (control 53 nmol/L, fortified 65 nmol/L; p < 0.001). After 12 wks the fortified milk group had a serum 25OHD 19% (95% CI; 7, 32%) higher (10 nmol/L) than the control group after adjusting for baseline levels (p < 0.001). Daily consumption of fortified milk providing the current AI of 5 microg day vitamin D3 for 12 weeks resulted in higher 25OHD concentrations than control milk. This dose was not sufficient to prevent the seasonal decline in 25OHD. This study suggests an AI of 5 microg may be inadequate for New Zealanders to allow for seasonal changes in sunlight exposure, and is unlikely sufficient for other populations with low sunlight exposure.
    Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 01/2010; 19(2):195-9. · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations are lower in Pacific people compared to Caucasians living in New Zealand. However, there are no data on the 25OHD concentrations of Pacific people living in the Pacific Islands. To assess the vitamin D status of indigenous and Indian Fijian women living in Fiji by measuring 25OHD concentrations. 25OHD concentrations in a national sample of 511 Fijian women (15-44 y). The mean 25OHD concentration of Fijian women was 76 nmol/L (95% CI: 73, 78). 25OHD was lower in Fijian Indian [70 (66, 74) nmol/L; n=205] women compared to indigenous Fijians [80 (76, 84) nmol/L; n=306] (p<0.0001). The mean 25OHD was higher in rural [77 (74, 80) nmol/L; n=392] than urban [70 (65, 76) nmol/L; n=119] women (p<0.0001). Body mass index (BMI) and age were not predictors of 25OHD concentrations. Of Fijian females, 3%, 11%, and 56% had 25OHD concentrations indicative of 25OHD insufficiency using cut-offs of < or =37.5, < or =50 and < or =80 nmol/L, respectively. Mean 25OHD in Fijian women was generally adequate and exceed concentrations reported in Pacific females living in New Zealand.
    Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 01/2010; 19(1):43-8. · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of serum fatty acid biomarkers in nutritional epidemiology is increasingly common; however, there is an absence of scientific evidence to substantiate whether the measurement of fatty acids as molecular percentages (which is the conventional approach) or as absolute concentrations is more informative. To advance understanding about this fundamental concept, we examined the ability of serum myristic acid and linoleic acid, expressed as molecular percentages or as concentrations, to predict dietary fat and serum cholesterol concentrations. A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based survey of New Zealand adults (n = 2732) was undertaken. The association of myristic and linoleic acids in serum cholesterol ester and phospholipid with dietary fat or serum cholesterol was assessed. Intake of saturated fat, dairy fat, and polyunsaturated fat was predicted similarly with the use of both units of measurement. After adjustment for confounders, mean total cholesterol decreased by 0.18 mmol/L from the lowest to the highest quintile of serum cholesteryl-linoleate as a molecular percentage (P = 0.027). In contrast, mean total cholesterol increased by 1.09 mmol/L from the lowest to the highest quintile of serum cholesteryl-linoleate concentration (P < 0.001). The molecular percentage and concentration of serum cholesteryl-myristate were positively associated with total cholesterol (P < 0.001). Results for serum phospholipid fatty acids were similar. Serum myristic acid and linoleic acid measured as molecular percentages, but not as concentrations, predict serum total cholesterol in a manner that distinguishes between the differential cholesterolemic effects of dietary saturated and polyunsaturated fats.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 12/2009; 91(2):398-405. · 6.50 Impact Factor
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    C M Skeaff
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    ABSTRACT: Expert groups and public health authorities recommend that trans-fatty acid (TFA) intakes from industrially produced partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs) should be less than 1% of total energy intake. The starting point for any regulatory or nonregulatory response to this recommendation is to assess the extent of the problem by determining where in the food supply TFAs are found and the amounts consumed in the population. Unfortunately, this is a particularly difficult task using traditional methods of dietary assessment inasmuch as food composition databases with TFA data are either nonexistent or incomplete in most countries. Current evidence on estimates of intake suggests there is high variability in TFA intakes and their food sources between countries. The ubiquitous presence of PHVOs in the global food supply in bakery products, deep-fried foods, snack foods, confectionery products and table spreads attests to their commercial value and convenience. However, their common use is more the result of historical convenience from an industry infrastructure developed over 50 years based on efficient, cost-effective hydrogenation of vegetable oils rather than any inherent sensory or physical superiority of the hydrogenated fats over purpose-made zero-trans fats and oils. Current global supply of appropriate zero-trans replacement fats high in cis-unsaturated fatty acids is insufficient to meet the demand if all PHVOs in the food supply were replaced. Regulatory action needs to be coordinated with supply to maximize the opportunity for health gains by replacing partially hydrogenated fats with purpose-ready zero-trans vegetable oils low in saturates and high in cis-unsaturates rather than animal fats and tropical oils high in saturated fatty acids.
    European journal of clinical nutrition 06/2009; 63 Suppl 2:S34-49. · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A number of approaches have been initiated by governmental and public health organizations in different countries to reduce trans-fatty acid (TFA) intakes. These have included nutrition recommendations with regard to TFAs and general nutrition recommendations regarding the selection of healthy fats, programmes to raise awareness about the adverse effects of TFAs through nutrition and health claims, voluntary or mandatory labelling of the trans content of foods, voluntary or legislated programmes to encourage or force industry to reformulate food products to remove TFAs, the promotion of health and agricultural policies that encourage the production of healthy alternatives to trans fat and finally, mandatory regulation of food standards to remove or reduce the TFA content. This paper reviews a number of initiatives to reduce the intake of TFAs underway in selected industrialized and developing countries, which serves to illustrate the merits and limitations of the available options and how the approaches that have been taken reflect local conditions.Keywords: trans fat, labelling, Denmark, Canada, New York City, Argentina, India
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 04/2009; · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the WHO scientific review on trans fatty acids (TFAs) was to examine the evidence generated since the 1993 Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Fats and Oils in Human Nutrition, and to inform member countries on the health consequences of TFAs consumption that have emerged since the last report was released. The new information was deemed sufficient to recommend the need to significantly reduce or to virtually eliminate industrially produced TFA from the food supply in agreement with the implementation of the 2004 WHO Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. This goal has been accomplished in some countries and cities, by the virtual elimination of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils in the human food supply, replacing them with healthy cis-unsaturated fatty acids. The document provides the evidence base to promote discussion between the international scientific community related to nutrition and health as well as between agriculturalists, food producers, relevant health professionals, national and international food regulatory agencies, civil society and the private sector to achieve the stated goal.Keywords: trans fatty acids, coronary heart disease, partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, feasibility, Scientific Update
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 04/2009; · 2.76 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
315.95 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2012
    • University of Otago
      • • Department of Human Nutrition
      • • Department of Psychology
      Dunedin, Otago, New Zealand
  • 2008
    • National Institute of Nutrition, Vietnam
      Hà Nội, Ha Nội, Vietnam
    • The Chinese University of Hong Kong
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2003
    • University of Adelaide
      • Discipline of Paediatrics
      Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
  • 2000
    • University of Auckland
      • Department of Medicine
      Окленд, Auckland, New Zealand