Candace Panagabko

Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (10)30.98 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin E isoforms have opposing regulatory effects on leucocyte recruitment during inflammation. Furthermore, in vitro, vitamin E isoforms have opposing effects on leucocyte migration across endothelial cells by regulating VCAM (vascular cell-adhesion molecule)-1 activation of endothelial cell PKCα (protein kinase Cα). However, it is not known whether tocopherols directly regulate cofactor-dependent or oxidative activation of PKCα. We report in the present paper that cofactor-dependent activation of recombinant PKCα was increased by γ-tocopherol and was inhibited by α-tocopherol. Oxidative activation of PKCα was inhibited by α-tocopherol at a 10-fold lower concentration than γ-tocopherol. In binding studies, NBD (7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole)-tagged α-tocopherol directly bound to full-length PKCα or the PKCα-C1a domain, but not PKCζ. NBD-tagged α-tocopherol binding to PKCα or the PKCα-C1a domain was blocked by diacylglycerol, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol and retinol, but not by cholesterol or PS (phosphatidylserine). Tocopherols enhanced PKCα-C2 domain binding to PS-containing lipid vesicles. In contrast, the PKCα-C2 domain did not bind to lipid vesicles containing tocopherol without PS. The PKCα-C1b domain did not bind to vesicles containing tocopherol and PS. In summary, α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol bind the diacylglycerol-binding site on PKCα-C1a and can enhance PKCα-C2 binding to PS-containing vesicles. Thus the tocopherols can function as agonists or antagonists for differential regulation of PKCα.
    Biochemical Journal 09/2011; 441(1):189-98. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous work has shown that the α-tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP) can bind to vesicular or immobilized phospholipid membranes. Revealing the molecular mechanisms by which α-TTP associates with membranes is thought to be critical to understanding its function and role in the secretion of tocopherol from hepatocytes into the circulation. Calculations presented in the Orientations of Proteins in Membranes database have provided a testable model for the spatial arrangement of α-TTP and other CRAL-TRIO family proteins with respect to the lipid bilayer. These calculations predicted that a hydrophobic surface mediates the interaction of α-TTP with lipid membranes. To test the validity of these predictions, we used site-directed mutagenesis and examined the substituted mutants with regard to intermembrane ligand transfer, association with lipid layers and biological activity in cultured hepatocytes. Substitution of residues in helices A8 (F165A and F169A) and A10 (I202A, V206A and M209A) decreased the rate of intermembrane ligand transfer as well as protein adsorption to phospholipid bilayers. The largest impairment was observed upon mutation of residues that are predicted to be fully immersed in the lipid bilayer in both apo (open) and holo (closed) conformations such as Phe165 and Phe169. Mutation F169A, and especially F169D, significantly impaired α-TTP-assisted secretion of α-tocopherol outside cultured hepatocytes. Mutation of selected basic residues (R192H, K211A, and K217A) had little effect on transfer rates, indicating no significant involvement of nonspecific electrostatic interactions with membranes.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 01/2011; 405(4):972-88. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    Ryan West, Candace Panagabko, Jeffrey Atkinson
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    ABSTRACT: Fluorescent nitrobenzoxadiazole analogues of alpha-tocopherol (NBD-alpha-Tocs; lambda(ex) = 468 nm, lambda(em) = 527 nm) have been made previously to aid study of the intracellular location and transfer of vitamin E. However, these analogues are susceptible to photobleaching while under illumination for confocal microscopy as well as in in vitro FRET transfer assays. Here we report the synthesis of three fluorescent analogues of alpha-tocopherol incorporating the more robust dipyrrometheneboron difluoride (BODIPY) fluorophore. A BODIPY-linked chromanol should have no intervening polar functional groups that might interfere with binding to the hydrophobic binding site of the tocopherol transfer protein (alpha-TTP). A key step in bringing the two ring systems together was a metathesis reaction of vinyl chromanol and an alkenyl BODIPY. An o-tolyl containing second generation Grubbs catalyst was identified as the best catalyst for effecting the metathesis without detectable alkene isomerization, which when it occurred produced a mixture of chain lengths in the alkyl linker. C8-BODIPY-alpha-Toc 10c (lambda(ex) = 507 nm, lambda(em) = 511 nm, epsilon(507) = 83,000 M(-1) cm(-1)) having an eight-carbon chain between the chromanol and fluorophore, had the highest affinity for alpha-TTP (K(d) = 94 +/- 3 nM) and bound specifically as it could not be displaced with cholesterol.
    The Journal of Organic Chemistry 04/2010; 75(9):2883-92. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    Yongsheng Wang, Candace Panagabko, Jeffrey Atkinson
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    ABSTRACT: A polyunsaturated analogue of alpha-tocopherol was synthesized that is both fluorescent and sensitive to peroxidative chemistry that occurs in phospholipid membranes. alpha-Tocohexaenol 1, [(S)-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2-((1E/Z,3E,5E,7E,9E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,5,7,9,11-hexaenyl)chroman-6-ol, alpha-T6] was prepared by condensing a known triene fragment triphenyl-(2,6-dimethyl-octa-2,4,6-trienoic acid methyl ester)-phosphonium bromide with a protected chromanol aldehyde, (2S)-6-{[tert-butyl(dimethyl)silyl]oxy}-2,5,7,8-tetra-methyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromene-2-carbaldehyde. The full side chain was then completed with isopentyl(tri-n-butyl)phosphonium bromide to give 1. The geometry of the C1'-C2' alkene appears to be Z (cis) although the coupling constants of the olefinic protons are intermediate between values normally assigned to E and Z-isomers. In ethanol, alpha-T6 has a maximum absorption at 368nm with an absorption coefficient of 45,000M(-1) cm(-1), and displays a maximum fluorescence emission at 523nm. The susceptibility of alpha-T6 to peroxidative chemistry was dependent on the concentration of azo-initiators of lipid oxidation in acetonitrile solution as well as in phospholipid vesicles. A loss of fluorescence at 520nm was observed when alpha-T6 (vesicles or alpha-T6-lipid mixtures) was exposed to peroxidative conditions, and this loss mirrored the production of conjugated dienes and trienes during the peroxidation of bulk phospholipids. Addition of natural alpha-tocopherol during the AMVN induced oxidation of 4microM alpha-T6 and 0.5mg/ml soybean PC induced a characteristic lag phase, after which the fluorescence of alpha-T6 began to lessen. Thus, alpha-T6 may be a useful reporter not only of tocopherol location in cells, but also of the extent of peroxidative events.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 11/2009; 18(2):777-86. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of specific amino acid residues in mediating the biochemical functions of tocopherol transfer protein (TTP) was investigated using site-directed mutagenesis and functional assays. These findings further current understanding of TTP mechanism of action and its role in human health.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 01/2005; 1031:332-3. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tocopherol transfer protein (TTP) is a key regulator of vitamin E homeostasis. TTP is presumed to function by transporting the hydrophobic vitamin between cellular compartments, thus facilitating its secretion to the extracellular space. Indeed, recombinant TTP demonstrates marked ability to facilitate tocopherol transfer between lipid bilayers. We report the biochemical characterization of six missense mutations TTP(1) that are found in human AVED patients. We expressed the H101Q, A120T, R192H, R59W, E141K, and R221W TTP mutants in Escherichia coli, and purified the proteins to homogeneity. We then characterized TTP and its mutant counterparts with respect to their affinity for RRR-alpha-tocopherol and to their ability to catalyze tocopherol transfer between membranes. We observe the R59W, E141K, and R221W mutations, associated with the severe, early-onset version of AVED, are impaired in tocopherol binding and transfer activity. Surprisingly, despite the profound clinical effect of the R59W, E141K, and R221W mutations in vivo, their impact on TTP activity in vitro is quite benign (2-3-fold reduction in transfer kinetics). Furthermore, mutations associated with milder forms of the AVED disease, while causing pronounced perturbations in tocopherol homeostasis in vivo, are remarkably similar to the wild-type protein in the tocopherol transfer assays in vitro. Our data indicate that tocopherol transfer activity in vitro does not properly recapitulate the physiological functions of TTP. These findings suggest the possibility that the AVED syndrome may not arise from an inability of TTP to bind or to transfer alpha tocopherol, but rather from defects in other activities of the protein.
    Biochemistry 05/2004; 43(14):4143-9. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intracellular trafficking of hydrophobic ligands is often mediated by specific binding proteins. The CRAL-TRIO motif is common to several lipid binding proteins including the cellular retinaldehyde binding protein (CRALBP), the alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (alpha-TTP), yeast phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (Sec14p), and supernatant protein factor (SPF). To examine the ligand specificity of these proteins, we measured their affinity toward a variety of hydrophobic ligands using a competitive [(3)H]-RRR-alpha-tocopherol binding assay. Alpha-TTP preferentially bound RRR-alpha-tocopherol over all other tocols assayed, exhibiting a K(d) of 25 nM. Binding affinities of other tocols for alphaTTP closely paralleled their ability to inhibit in vitro intermembrane transfer and their potency in biological assays. All other homologous proteins studied bound alpha-tocopherol but with pronouncedly weaker (> 10-fold) affinities than alpha-TTP. Sec14p demonstrated a K(d) of 373 nM for alpha-tocopherol, similar to that for its native ligand, phosphatidylinositol (381 nM). Human SPF had the highest affinity for phosphatidylinositol (216 nM) and gamma-tocopherol (268 nM) and significantly weaker affinity for alpha-tocopherol (K(d) 615 nM). SPF bound [(3)H]-squalene more weakly (879 nM) than the other ligands. Our data suggest that of all known CRAL-TRIO proteins, only alphaTTP is likely to serve as the physiological mediator of alpha-tocopherol's biological activity. Further, ligand promiscuity observed within this family suggests that caution should be exercised when suggesting protein function(s) from measurements utilizing a single ligand.
    Biochemistry 06/2003; 42(21):6467-74. · 3.38 Impact Factor
  • Candace Lee. Panagabko
    01/2003;
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    ABSTRACT: alpha-Tocopherol transfer protein (alpha-TTP) is a cytosolic protein found predominantly in mammalian liver that is proposed to be responsible for the stereoselective uptake of alpha-tocopherol from the diet. Although recombinant alpha-TTP has been reported previously, little detail has been provided about the yields and competency of the recovered protein at binding tocopherols and other ligands. In this work, we report the successful expression and refolding of a recombinant human alpha-TTP. Ligation-independent cloning generated a construct in pET-30 encoding an alpha-TTP fusion protein (pET-30/ttp) containing a six-histidine tag and an S-tag, each cleavable by a separate protease upon expression in Escherichia coli. Overexpression of the protein led to the formation of inclusion bodies that were solubilized in 8 M urea and purified by metal chelate affinity chromatography. Another construct in pET-28b (pET-28b/ttp) provided a soluble protein product after expression that contained a 40-amino-acid N-terminal extension, which can be reduced to 21 amino acids by cleavage with thrombin. The success of different refolding experiments was assessed using a Lipidex gel-based tocopherol binding assay. The best recovery of refolded recombinant alpha-TTP fusion capable of binding alpha-tocopherol was provided by matrix-assisted refolding in the presence of 0.5 M arginine. Cleavage of the fusion protein with Factor Xa successfully generated the full-length wild-type protein with no additional N-terminal amino acids. The resulting purification scheme provides recombinant alpha-TTP in good yield and purity for investigation of both its structure and its binding affinities for different ligands including natural and synthetic tocols.
    Protein Expression and Purification 05/2002; 24(3):395-403. · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The terminal hydroxycinnamic acid monoconjugates of putrescine, spermidine and spermine were resolved and quantified in extracts of plant tissues using sodium hexanesulphonate as an ion-pair reagent and a double methanol gradient. Extracts were prepared from acidic methanol:water (80:20) that had been back-extracted with hexane, and fractionated on C-18 solid phase extraction and carboxymethyl cation exchange cartridges. The chromatographic conditions were capable of separating N1- and N8-coumaroyl and feruloyl spermidine, which differ only by the disposition of the secondary amine in the polyamine side chain. Reliable detection limits for most compounds were less than 5 µg/mL (approximately 10−5M in the plant extract) and extraction efficiencies were 91% as determined using the novel internal standard, N1-coumaroyl hexanediamine. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytochemical Analysis 01/2000; 11(1):11-17. · 2.48 Impact Factor