[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the physiological, metabolic and hormonal mechanisms underlying the elevated risk of type 2 diabetes in carriers of TCF7L2 gene.
We undertook genotyping of 81 healthy young Danish men for rs7903146 of TCF7L2 and carried out various beta cell tests including: 24 h glucose, insulin and glucagon profiles; OGTT; mixed meal test; IVGTT; hyperglycaemic clamp with co-infusion of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 or glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP); and a euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp combined with glucose tracer infusion to study hepatic and peripheral insulin action.
Carriers of the T allele were characterised by reduced 24 h insulin concentrations (p < 0.05) and reduced insulin secretion relative to glucose during a mixed meal test (beta index: p < 0.003), but not during an IVGTT. This was further supported by reduced late-phase insulinotropic action of GLP-1 (p = 0.03) and GIP (p = 0.07) during a 7 mmol/l hyperglycaemic clamp. Secretion of GLP-1 and GIP during the mixed meal test was normal. Despite elevated hepatic glucose production, carriers of the T allele had significantly reduced 24 h glucagon concentrations (p < 0.02) suggesting altered alpha cell function.
Elevated hepatic glucose production and reduced insulinotropic effect of incretin hormones contribute to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in carriers of the rs7903146 risk T allele of TCF7L2.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by defects in insulin secretion and action. Impaired glucose uptake in skeletal muscle is believed to be one of the earliest features in the natural history of T2DM, although underlying mechanisms remain obscure.
We combined human insulin/glucose clamp physiological studies with genome-wide expression profiling to identify thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) as a gene whose expression is powerfully suppressed by insulin yet stimulated by glucose. In healthy individuals, its expression was inversely correlated to total body measures of glucose uptake. Forced expression of TXNIP in cultured adipocytes significantly reduced glucose uptake, while silencing with RNA interference in adipocytes and in skeletal muscle enhanced glucose uptake, confirming that the gene product is also a regulator of glucose uptake. TXNIP expression is consistently elevated in the muscle of prediabetics and diabetics, although in a panel of 4,450 Scandinavian individuals, we found no evidence for association between common genetic variation in the TXNIP gene and T2DM.
TXNIP regulates both insulin-dependent and insulin-independent pathways of glucose uptake in human skeletal muscle. Combined with recent studies that have implicated TXNIP in pancreatic beta-cell glucose toxicity, our data suggest that TXNIP might play a key role in defective glucose homeostasis preceding overt T2DM.
PLoS Medicine 06/2007; 4(5):e158. · 15.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have shown an association between low weight at birth and being born small for gestational age (SGA) on the one hand and risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes on the other. Our studies in twins have indicated a non-genetic age-dependent origin of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes associated with being born SGA. In order to gain insight into the molecular metabolic defects and mechanisms linking SGA with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, we performed a series of experiments in young and elderly twins, and, in particular, in young men (aged 19-23 years) with a weight at birth at term in the lowest 10th percentile with no family history of diabetes. The control group included age-matched men with birth weights at term in the upper normal range. While body mass index and waist-to-hip ratios were similar in the individuals born SGA and controls, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry studies documented a higher degree of abdominal obesity in the men who had a low weight at birth. Using the gold standard hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp technique combined with glucose tracers and studies of forearm glucose uptake, we found an impairment of insulin-stimulated glycolytic flux and reduced forearm (muscle) glucose uptake in the face of normal whole-body glucose uptake. In addition, we found a significantly decreased insulin secretion rate during oral glucose ingestion after correction for insulin action (disposition index), a paradoxical enhanced insulin suppression of hepatic glucose production and lower fasting plasma glycerol levels, suggesting impaired lipolysis. Finally, analysis of skeletal muscle biopsies showed reduced muscle expression of several key proteins involved in insulin signalling and glucose transport, including protein kinase C-zeta, the two subunits of phosphoinositol 3-kinase (i.e., p85alpha and p110beta) and the insulin-sensitive glucose transporter, Glut-4, in individuals of low birth weight. In conclusion, being born SGA and of low birth weight is associated with type 2 diabetes in a non-genetic manner, and programming of muscle insulin action and signalling represents an early mechanism responsible for this association.
Hormone Research 02/2006; 65 Suppl 3:137-43. · 2.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gene encoding calpain-10 (CAPN10) has been identified as a candidate gene for type 2 diabetes. Our aim was to study the impact of genetic (heritability and polymorphisms) and nongenetic (insulin, free fatty acids, and age) factors on CAPN10 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle using two different study designs. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps from 166 young and elderly monozygotic and dizygotic twins as well as from 15 subjects with normal (NGT) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) exposed to an Intralipid infusion. We found hereditary effects on both basal and insulin-exposed CAPN10 mRNA expression. Carriers of the type 2 diabetes-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-43 G/G genotype had reduced CAPN10 mRNA levels compared with subjects carrying the SNP-43 A-allele. Age had no significant influence on CAPN10 mRNA levels. Insulin had no significant effect on CAPN10 mRNA levels, neither in the twins nor in the basal state of the Intralipid study. However, after a 24-h infusion of Intralipid, we noted a significant increase in CAPN10 mRNA in response to insulin in subjects with NGT but not in subjects with IGT. In conclusion, we provide evidence that mRNA expression of CAPN10 in skeletal muscle is under genetic control. Glucose-tolerant but not glucose-intolerant individuals upregulate their CAPN10 mRNA levels in response to prolonged exposure to fat.