[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined by increased thyrotropin (TSH) and normal free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels. Resistin is secreted from adipose tissue and is reported to be associated with insulin resistance and/or inflammation. High sensitive CRP (hs-CRP) is a reliable marker of inflammation. Data related to levels of resistin and hs-CRP in SH and the effect of L-thyroxine treatment on those is limited. We aimed to determine the levels of resistin and hs-CRP in women with SH, and potential effects of L-thyroxine therapy on those levels. Material and Methods Thirty-six patients with SH and 27 age- and BMI-matched healthy control women were included. Waist circumference (Wc), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), resting energy expenditure (REE), fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM), TSH, free T4 (fT4), free T3 (fT3), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and HDL- and LDL-cholesterol were determined in all participants. Patients received L-thyroxine treatment for 6 months, after which all measurements were repeated. Resistin and hs-CRP levels were studied from frozen samples after the completion of the study. Results The 2 groups had similar values for Wc, WHR, FM, LM, TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, resistin, and hs-CRP at the beginning. fT4 were higher, whereas TSH was lower in the control group. Resistin and hs-CRP levels did not change after treatment. hs-CRP correlated with BMI and FM before and after treatment. Conclusions Our results suggest that achievement of euthyroid status by replacement therapy did not change resistin or hs-CRP levels in women with SH. hs-CRP correlated with parameters of obesity, which emphasizes the role of body weight in inflammation.
Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 01/2013; 19:210-5. · 1.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Adrenal androgen excess is frequently observed in PCOS. The aim of the study was to determine whether adrenal gland function varies among PCOS phenotypes, women with hyperandrogenism (H) only and healthy women. METHODS: The study included 119 non-obese patients with PCOS (age: 22.2 +/- 4.1y, BMI:22.5 +/- 3.1 kg/m2), 24 women with H only and 39 age and BMI- matched controls. Among women with PCOS, 50 had H, oligo-anovulation (O), and polycystic ovaries (P) (PHO), 32 had O and H (OH), 23 had P and H (PH), and 14 had P and O (PO). Total testosterone (T), SHBG and DHEAS levels at basal and serum 17-hydroxprogesterone (17-OHP), androstenedione (A4), DHEA and cortisol levels after ACTH stimulation were measured. RESULTS: T, FAI and DHEAS, and basal and AUC values for 17-OHP and A4 were significantly and similarly higher in PCOS and H groups than controls (p < 0.05 for all) whereas three groups did not differ for basal or AUC values of DHEA and cortisol. Three hyperandrogenic subphenotypes (PHO, OH, and PH) compared to non-hyperandrogenic subphenotype (PO) had significantly and similarly higher T, FAI, DHEAS and AUC values for 17-OHP, A4 and DHEA (p < 0.05). All subphenotypes had similar basal and AUC values for cortisol. CONCLUSION: PCOS patients and women with H only have similar and higher basal and stimulated adrenal androgen levels than controls. All three hyperandrogenic subphenotypes of PCOS exhibit similar and higher basal and stimulated adrenal androgen secretion patterns compared to non-hyperandrogenic subphenotype.
Journal of Ovarian Research 12/2012; 5(1):42. · 2.43 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Limited data are available regarding the potential effects of oral contraceptives (OCs) on body fat distribution particularly in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of ethinyl estradiol and drospirenone on body composition. STUDY DESIGN: Participants included 28 lean patients with PCOS and 28 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy women. The PCOS patients received ethinyl estradiol 30 mcg/drospirenone 3 mg for 6 months. Body composition parameters were assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Serum androgens, lipids, insulin resistance and glucose metabolism measures were also determined. RESULTS: At baseline, the PCOS patients and controls had similar body composition, lipids, insulin resistance and glucose metabolism parameters. Total and trunk fat percentages were negatively correlated with sex hormone binding globulin and were positively correlated with homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and free androgen index in the PCOS group.. After 6 months of treatment in the PCOS patients, total fat percentage increased from 24.5%±7.1% to 26.0%±6.1% (p=.035) and trunk fat percentage increased from 20.2%±8.9% to 22.2%±7.1% (p=.014), although weight, BMI and waist to hip ratio (WHR) remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Lean women with PCOS have similar body composition compared to healthy women. OC therapy for 6 months in PCOS patients results in an increased total and trunk fat percentage despite no change in clinical anthropometric measures including weight, BMI and WHR.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: STUDY QUESTION: What is the prevalence, phenotype and metabolic features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in the same population according to three different diagnostic criteria? SUMMARY ANSWER: The prevalence of PCOS under National Institutes of Health (NIH), Rotterdam and Androgen Excess and PCOS (AE-PCOS) Society criteria was 6.1, 19.9 and 15.3%, respectively. PCOS carried a 2-fold increased risk of metabolic syndrome regardless of the diagnostic criteria used. WHAT IS KNOWN AND WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: The prevalence rates of PCOS differ depending on the diagnostic criteria used to define the syndrome. The current paper gives the prevalence rates of the component and composite phenotypes of PCOS in the same population and reports similar rates of metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS under contrasting diagnostic criteria. DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, 392 women between the ages of 18 and 45 years were analyzed. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: When the prevalence of PCOS according to NIH was set to 8% with a precision of 2.2% and confidence interval of 95%, the sample size required for a prevalence survey was found to be 400 subjects. The study was carried out in the General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, a government-based institute, in which the largest number of female staff (n = 527) are employed within a single institute in Ankara, Turkey. The study was performed between 7 December 2009 and 30 April 2010. All female subjects between the ages of 18 and 45 years were invited to participate. Women older than 45 or younger than 18 years, post-menopausal women, women with a history of hysterectomy or bilateral oopherectomy and pregnant women were excluded. Totally, 392 of the employees were recruited for the final analyses. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The prevalence of PCOS under NIH, Rotterdam and AE-PCOS Society criteria were 6.1, 19.9 and 15.3%, respectively. While the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 6.1% in the whole study group, within the patients diagnosed as PCOS according to NIH, Rotterdam and AE-PCOS Society criteria, it was 12.5, 10.3 and 10.0%, respectively. BIAS, CONFOUNDING AND OTHER REASONS FOR CAUTION: Even though we have included women working at a single institution with a high response rate for the participation, we cannot exclude potential selection bias due to undetermined differences between our sample and background community. We might have underestimated actual prevalence of metabolic syndrome in PCOS due to lack of oral glucose tolerance test 2 h glucose data. GENERALIZABILITY TO OTHER POPULATIONS: Current results can be generalized to Caucasian populations and may present variations in other populations according to race and ethnicity. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This work was, in part, sponsored by Merck Serono. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Not applicable.
Human Reproduction 07/2012; 27(10):3067-73. · 4.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with psychological and metabolic disturbances. The aim of this study was to determine whether depression, anxiety and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are more common in women with PCOS and associated with metabolic risk.
The study included 226 PCOS patients and 85 BMI-matched healthy control women. All participants completed standardized questionnaires assessing depression (Beck Depression Inventory), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and both depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and General Health Questionnaire). Patients also completed a PCOS HRQOL questionnaire. Hirsutism scores, serum androgens and lipids were obtained. All subjects underwent a standard oral glucose tolerance test.
28.6% of PCOS women versus 4.7% of control women had clinical depression scores indicating an 8.1-fold increased risk of depression in PCOS (P < 0.001). Depression and anxiety scores were higher in PCOS women than controls (P < 0.01 for all subscales). Obese PCOS subjects had higher depression scores and rates than non-obese PCOS women (P < 0.05). Depression scores were significantly correlated with insulin resistance and lipid parameters and with the number of components comprising the metabolic syndrome. Menstrual and hirsutism problems were the most serious concerns followed by emotional problems on the HRQOL.
Depression and anxiety are more common in patients with PCOS compared with healthy women. Depression in PCOS might be associated with obesity and metabolic abnormalities including insulin resistance and dyslipidemia.
Human Reproduction 12/2011; 26(12):3339-45. · 4.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High molecular weight adiponectin (HMWA) is the active circulating form of adiponectin. Nampt/visfatin is the enzyme secreted from adipocytes in an active form and is one of the putative regulators of insulin secretion.
To investigate the dynamics of total adiponectin (TA), HMWA and Nampt/visfatin in obese and lean women during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).
We studied normal glucose-tolerant (NGT), age-matched, 30 obese and 30 lean women. All subjects underwent a standard 75 g, 2-h OGTT, and area under the curve (AUC) during OGTT for glucose, insulin, Nampt/visfatin, TA and HMWA was calculated. Body fat mass was assessed by bioimpedance analysis. Results Obese women had significantly higher basal and AUC values for insulin and Nampt/visfatin, whereas basal and AUC-HMWA were significantly lower in this group. Alternatively, obese and lean groups had similar basal and AUC values for glucose and TA. Basal insulin levels were negatively correlated with HMWA levels, but not with basal Nampt/visfatin. AUC-insulin was correlated positively with AUC-visfatin, and negatively with AUC-HMWA. Total and truncal body fat mass showed positive correlation with basal and AUC-visfatin, and negative correlation with basal and AUC-HMWA.
In the NGT state, obese women have higher Nampt/visfatin and lower HMWA levels, both basally and in response to oral glucose challenge. The dynamics of Nampt/visfatin and HMWA during OGTT appear to be linked with insulin and adiposity. Counter-regulatory adaptations in HMWA and Nampt/visfatin might have an impact on suggested adipoinsular axis, contributing to maintenance of normal glucose tolerance.