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Publications (10)39.09 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The pharmacokinetics, metabolism and excretion of a single oral dose of 5 mg (100 μCi) of [(14)C]axitinib were investigated in fasted healthy human subjects (N=8). Axitinib was rapidly absorbed with a median plasma Tmax of 2.2 h, and a geometric mean Cmax and half-life of 29.2 ng/mL and 10.6 h, respectively. The plasma total radioactivity-time profile was similar to parent drug but the AUC was greater, suggesting the presence of circulating metabolites. The major metabolites in human plasma (0-12 h) identified as axitinib N-glucuronide (M7) and axitinib sulfoxide (M12), were pharmacologically inactive, and along with axitinib, comprised 50.4%, 16.2% and 22.5% of the radioactivity, respectively. In excreta, the majority of radioactivity was recovered in most subjects by 48 h post dose. The median radioactivity recovered in urine and feces was 22.7% and 37.0%, respectively, with a median overall recovery of 59.7%. The recovery from feces was variable across subjects (range 2.5-60.2%). The metabolites identified in urine were M5 (carboxylic acid), M12 (sulfoxide), M7 (N-glucuronide), M9 (sulfoxide/N-oxide) and M8a (methylhydroxy glucuronide), accounting for 5.7%, 3.5%, 2.6%, 1.7% and 1.3% of the dose, respectively. The drug-related products identified in feces were unchanged axitinib, M14/15 (mono-oxidation/sulfone), M12a (epoxide) and an unidentified metabolite, comprising 12%, 5.7%, 5.1% and 5.0% of the dose, respectively. The proposed mechanism for the formation of the carboxylic acid metabolite (M5) involved a carbon-carbon cleavage via the epoxide (M12a) followed by rearrangement to a ketone intermediate and subsequent Baeyer-Villiger rearrangement, possibly through a peroxide intermediate. In summary, the study enabled the characterization of axitinib metabolites in circulation along with key primary elimination pathways of the drug, which appeared to be mainly oxidative in nature.
    Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 03/2014; · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Axitinib is a potent and selective second-generation inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2 and 3 approved for second-line treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma. The objectives of this analysis were to assess plasma pharmacokinetics and identify covariates that may explain variability in axitinib disposition following single-dose administration in healthy volunteers. Plasma concentration-time data from 337 healthy volunteers in ten Phase I studies were analysed, using nonlinear mixed effects modelling (NONMEM) to estimate population pharmacokinetic parameters and evaluate relationships between parameters and food, formulation, demographic factors, measures of renal and hepatic function and metabolic genotypes (UGT1A1*28 and CYP2C19). A two-compartment structural model with first-order absorption and lag time best described axitinib pharmacokinetics. Population estimates for systemic clearance (CL), central volume of distribution (Vc ), absorption rate constant (ka ) and absolute bioavailability (F) were 17.0 L h(-1) , 45.3 L, 0.523 h(-1) and 46.5%, respectively. With axitinib Form IV, ka and F increased in the fasted state by 207% and 33.8%, respectively. For Form XLI (marketed formulation), F was 15% lower compared with Form IV. CL was not significantly influenced by any of the covariates studied. Body weight significantly affected Vc , but the effect was within the estimated interindividual variability for Vc. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis established a model that adequately characterises axitinib pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers. Vc was found to increase with body weight. However, no change in plasma exposures is expected with change in body weight; hence no dose adjustment is warranted.
    British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 07/2013; · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Axitinib is a potent and selective second-generation inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2, and 3 that is approved in the US and several other countries for treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma after failure of one prior systemic therapy. The recommended clinical starting dose of axitinib is 5 mg twice daily, taken with or without food. Dose increase (up to a maximum of 10 mg twice daily) or reduction is permitted based on individual tolerability. Axitinib pharmacokinetics are dose-proportional within 1-20 mg twice daily, which includes the clinical dose range. Axitinib has a short effective plasma half-life (range 2.5-6.1 h), and the plasma accumulation of axitinib is in agreement with what is expected based on the plasma half-life of the drug. Axitinib is absorbed relatively rapidly, reaching maximum observed plasma concentrations (C max) within 4 h of oral administration. The mean absolute bioavailability of axitinib is 58 %. Axitinib is highly (>99 %) bound to human plasma proteins with preferential binding to albumin and moderate binding to α1-acid glycoprotein. In patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma, at the 5-mg twice-daily dose in the fed state, the geometric mean (% coefficient of variation) C max and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0-24 h (AUC24) were 27.8 ng/mL (79 %) and 265 ng·h/mL (77 %), respectively. Axitinib is metabolized primarily in the liver by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4/5 and, to a lesser extent (<10 % each), by CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1. The two major human plasma metabolites, M12 (sulfoxide product) and M7 (glucuronide product), are considered pharmacologically inactive. Axitinib is eliminated via hepatobiliary excretion with negligible urinary excretion. Although mild hepatic impairment does not affect axitinib plasma exposures compared with subjects with normal hepatic function, there was a 2-fold increase in AUC from time zero to infinity (AUC∞) following a single 5-mg dose in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment. In the presence of ketoconazole, a strong CYP3A4/5 inhibitor, axitinib C max and AUC∞ increased by 1.5- and 2-fold, respectively, whereas co-administration of rifampin, a strong CYP3A4/5 inducer, resulted in a 71 and 79 % decrease in the C max and AUC∞, respectively. Axitinib does not inhibit CYP3A4/5, CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2A6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, or UGT1A1 at concentrations obtained with the clinical doses and is not expected to have major interactions with drugs that are metabolized by these enzymes. Axitinib is an inhibitor of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in vitro, but is not expected to inhibit P-gp at therapeutic plasma concentrations. A two-compartment population pharmacokinetic model with first-order absorption and lag time was used to describe axitinib pharmacokinetics. No clinically relevant effects of age, sex, body weight, race, renal function, UGT1A1 genotype, or CYP2C19 inferred phenotype on the clearance of axitinib were identified.
    Clinical Pharmacokinetics 05/2013; · 5.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of food on axitinib pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers with two different crystal polymorphs. Two separate open-label, randomized, single-dose, three-period, crossover trials were conducted. Study I, conducted first using 5-mg axitinib Form IV film-coated immediate-release (FCIR) tablets, enrolled 18 subjects to compare fed versus fasted states and 24 subjects to evaluate the effect of timing of food consumption on axitinib pharmacokinetics. Study II enrolled 30 subjects to assess the effect of food using 5-mg axitinib Form XLI FCIR tablets. Subjects received axitinib after overnight fasting, with limited fasting or, depending on the study design, after consuming high-fat, high-calorie or moderate-fat, standard-calorie meals. For Form IV FCIR, compared with overnight fasting, axitinib plasma exposure [area under the concentration curve (AUC)] was decreased 23 % when administered with food. For Form XLI FCIR, mean axitinib plasma AUC and maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) were 19 and 11 % higher, respectively, with a high-fat, high-calorie meal compared with overnight fasting. When Form XLI FCIR was administered with moderate-fat, standard-calorie meal, AUC and C(max) were 10 and 16 % lower compared with overnight fasting. Both formulations were well tolerated. Adverse events, mostly gastrointestinal (7 % with Form IV FCIR and 13 % with Form XLI FCIR), were mild to moderate in both studies. While axitinib Form IV FCIR was associated with higher plasma exposure after overnight fasting, axitinib Form XLI FCIR can be administered with or without food as differences in axitinib pharmacokinetics under the two conditions were not clinically meaningful.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 05/2012; 70(1):103-12. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Axitinib (AG-013736), an oral, potent, and selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2, and 3, is metabolized primarily by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A with minor contributions from CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and glucuronidation. Co-administration with CYP inhibitors may increase systemic exposure to axitinib and alter its safety profile. This study evaluated changes in axitinib plasma pharmacokinetic parameters and assessed safety and tolerability in healthy subjects, following axitinib co-administration with the potent CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole. In this randomized, single-blind, two-way crossover study, 32 healthy volunteers received placebo, followed by a single 5-mg oral dose of axitinib, administered either alone or on the fourth day of dosing with oral ketoconazole (400 mg/day for 7 days). Axitinib exposure was significantly increased in the presence of ketoconazole, with a geometric mean ratio for area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity of 2.06 (90% confidence interval [CI]: 1.84-2.30) and a geometric mean ratio for maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) of 1.50 (90% CI: 1.33-1.70). For axitinib alone or with ketoconazole, C(max) occurred 1.5 and 2.0 h after dosing, respectively. Adverse events were predominantly mild; the most commonly reported treatment-related adverse events were headache and nausea. Axitinib plasma exposures and peak concentrations were increased following concurrent administration of axitinib and ketoconazole in healthy volunteers. Axitinib alone and in combination with ketoconazole was well tolerated. These findings provide an upper exposure for expected axitinib plasma concentrations in the presence of potent metabolic inhibition.
    Investigational New Drugs 02/2012; 30(1):273-81. · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics and safety of a single, oral axitinib dose in subjects with mild or moderate hepatic impairment. In this phase I, open-label, parallel-group study, a total of 24 subjects with either normal hepatic function (n = 8) or with mild (n = 8) or moderate (n = 8) hepatic impairment were administered a single, oral dose of axitinib (5 mg). Blood samples were collected at intervals up to 144 h following dosing, and plasma pharmacokinetics and safety were assessed. Changes in axitinib plasma exposures in subjects with mild or moderate hepatic impairment were predicted using computer simulations and used to guide initial dosing in the clinical study. Axitinib exposure was similar in subjects with normal hepatic function and those with mild hepatic impairment, but approximately twofold higher in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment. Axitinib exposure weakly correlated with measures of hepatic function but was not affected by smoking status. Axitinib protein binding was similar in the three treatment groups. No significant treatment-related adverse events were reported. Compared with subjects with normal hepatic function, moderate hepatic impairment increased axitinib exposure, suggesting that the oral clearance of axitinib is altered in these subjects. In addition, these data indicate a possible need for a dose reduction in subjects who develop moderate or worse hepatic impairment during axitinib treatment. A single 5-mg dose of axitinib was well tolerated in subjects with mild or moderate hepatic impairment.
    Investigational New Drugs 12/2011; 29(6):1370-80. · 3.50 Impact Factor
  • Ejc Supplements - EJC SUPPL. 01/2010; 8(5):71-71.
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    ABSTRACT: Axitinib, a potent and selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2, 3, is metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4 and glucuronidation. This study evaluated the effect of rifampin, a potent inducer of drug-metabolizing enzymes, on axitinib plasma pharmacokinetics. Equal numbers of Japanese and Caucasian subjects were enrolled to assess the potential differences in axitinib pharmacokinetics between the two ethnicities. Forty healthy volunteers were randomized to receive 5 mg axitinib alone and with 600 mg rifampin. Rifampin expectedly decreased AUCinf and Cmax of axitinib (geometric mean reduced by 79 and 71%, respectively). However, differences in axitinib pharmacokinetics were not observed between Japanese and Caucasian subjects (geometric mean ratios for axitinib treatment alone for AUCinf and Cmax were 103 and 96%). The results support a common axitinib starting dose in both populations. Potent inducers of drug-metabolizing enzymes reduce axitinib exposure and dose adjustments may be needed for optimal efficacy.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 08/2009; 65(3):563-70. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Application of foreign clinical data across geographic regions can accelerate drug development. Drug disposition can be variable, and identification of factors influencing responsible pharmacokinetic/pharmacogenomic approaches could facilitate the universal application of foreign data and reduce the total amount of phase III clinical trials evaluating risks in different populations. Our objective was to establish and compare genotype (major cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes)/phenotype associations for Japanese (native and first- and third-generation Japanese living abroad), Caucasian, Chinese, and Korean populations using a standard drug panel. The mean metabolic ratios (MRs) for the four ethnic groups were similar except for a lower activity of CYP2D6 in Caucasians and CYP2C19 in Asians. Genotype, not ethnicity, impacted the MR for CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6; neither affected CYP1A2, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4/5 activities. We conclude that equivalent plasma drug concentrations and metabolic profiles can be expected for native Japanese, first- and third-generation Japanese, Koreans, and Chinese for compounds handled through these six CYP enzymes.
    Clinical Pharmacology &#38 Therapeutics 02/2008; 84(3):347-61. · 6.85 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Pharmacology &#38 Therapeutics 02/2003; 73(2):P80-P80. · 6.85 Impact Factor