[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Population:
Neither iAsIII nor DMAV altered P. aeruginosa induced cytokine secretion. By contrast, MMAIII increased P. aeruginosa induced secretion of IL-8, IL-6 and CXCL2. A combination of iAsIII, MMAIII and DMAV (10 pbb total) reduced IL-8 and CXCL1 secretion. These data demonstrate for the first time that exposure to MMAIII alone, and a combination of iAsIII, MMAIII and DMAV at levels relevant to the U.S. may have negative effects on the innate immune response of human bronchial epithelial cells to P. aeruginosa.
PLoS ONE 11/2015; 10(11):e0142392. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0142392 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: P. aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that chronically infects the lungs of 85% of adult patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). Previously, we demonstrated that P. aeruginosa reduced wt-CFTR Cl secretion by airway epithelial cells. Recently, a new investigational drug VX-809 has been shown to increase F508del-CFTR Cl secretion in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells, and, in combination with VX-770, to increase FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) by an average of 3-5% in CF patients homozygous for the F508del-CFTR mutation. We propose that P. aeruginosa infection of CF lungs reduces VX-809 + VX-770- stimulated F508del-CFTR Cl secretion, and thereby reduces the clinical efficacy of VX-809 + VX-770.
F508del-CFBE cells and primary cultures of CF-HBE cells (F508del/F508del) were exposed to VX-809 alone or a combination of VX-809 + VX-770 for 48 hours and the effect of P. aeruginosa on F508del-CFTR Cl secretion was measured in Ussing chambers. The effect of VX-809 on F508del-CFTR abundance was measured by cell surface biotinylation and western blot analysis. PAO1, PA14, PAK and 6 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa (3 mucoid and 3 non-mucoid) significantly reduced drug stimulated F508del-CFTR Cl secretion, and plasma membrane F508del-CFTR.
The observation that P. aeruginosa reduces VX-809 and VX-809 + VX-770 stimulated F508del CFTR Cl secretion may explain, in part, why VX-809 + VX-770 has modest efficacy in clinical trials.
PLoS ONE 05/2015; 10(5):e0127742. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0127742 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deficient chloride transport through cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) causes lethal complications in CF patients. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal recessive genetic disease caused by mutations in the CFTR gene; thus CFTR mutants can serve as primary targets for drugs to modulate and rescue the ion channel function. The first step of drug modulation is to increase the expression of CFTR in the apical plasma membrane (PM); thus accurate measurement of CFTR is the PM is desired. This work reports a tandem enrichment strategy to prepare PM CFTR and uses a stable isotope labeled CFTR sample as the quantitation reference to measure the absolute amount of apical PM expression of CFTR in CFBE 41o- cells. It was found that CFBE 41o- cells expressing wild-type CFTR (wtCFTR), when cultured on plates, had 2.9 ng of the protein in the apical PM per million cells; this represented 10% of total CFTR found in the cells. When these cells were polarized on filters, the apical PM expression of CFTR increased to 14%. Turnover of CFTR in the apical PM of baby hamster kidney cells overexpressing wtCFTR (BHK-wtCFTR) was also quantified by targeted proteomics based on multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry; wtCFTR had a half-time of 29.0±2.5 hours in the apical PM of BHK-wtCFTR cells. This represents the first direct measurement of CFTR turnover using stable isotopes. The absolute quantitation and turnover measurements of CFTR in the apical PM can significantly facilitate understanding the CF disease mechanism and thus the development of new disease-modifying drugs. Absolute CFTR quantitation allows for direct result comparisons between analyses, analysts, and laboratories and will greatly amplify the overall outcome of CF research and therapy.
Journal of Proteome Research 09/2014; 13(11). DOI:10.1021/pr5006795 · 4.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
Chelating iron may be a promising new therapy to eliminate Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Here, we investigate whether ALX-109 [a defined combination of an investigational drug containing lactoferrin (an iron-binding glycoprotein) and hypothiocyanite (a bactericidal agent)], alone and in combination with tobramycin or aztreonam, reduces P. aeruginosa biofilms grown on human CF airway epithelial cells.
P. aeruginosa (PAO1 and six clinical isolates of Pseudomonas) biofilms grown at the apical surface of confluent monolayers of CF airway epithelial cells were treated with ALX-109, either alone or in combination with tobramycin or aztreonam. Bacterial cfu remaining after treatment were determined by plate counting.
ALX-109 alone reduced PAO1 biofilm formation, but had no effect on established biofilms. ALX-109 enhanced the ability of tobramycin and aztreonam to inhibit PAO1 biofilm formation and to reduce established PAO1 biofilms. ALX-109 and tobramycin were additive in disrupting established biofilms formed by six clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa obtained from the sputum of CF patients. Mucoid P. aeruginosa isolates were most susceptible to the combination of ALX-109 and tobramycin. In addition, ALX-109 also enhanced the ability of aztreonam to reduce established PAO1 biofilms.
Inhalation therapy combining hypothiocyanite and lactoferrin with TOBI(®) (tobramycin) or Cayston(®) (aztreonam) may be beneficial to CF patients by decreasing the airway bacterial burden of P. aeruginosa.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The glucocorticoid dexamethasone increases cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) abundance in human airway
epithelial cells by a mechanism that requires serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase 1 (SGK1) activity. The goal
of this study was to determine whether SGK1 increases CFTR abundance by phosphorylating Shank2E, a PDZ domain protein that
contains two SGK1 phosphorylation consensus sites. We found that SGK1 phosphorylates Shank2E as well as a peptide containing
the first SGK1 consensus motif of Shank2E. The dexamethasone-induced increase in CFTR abundance was diminished by overexpression
of a dominant-negative Shank2E in which the SGK1 phosphorylation sites had been mutated. siRNA-mediated reduction of Shank2E
also reduced the dexamethasone-induced increase in CFTR abundance. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the glucocorticoid-induced
increase in CFTR abundance requires phosphorylation of Shank2E at an SGK1 consensus site.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chloride (Cl) secretion by the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) located in the apical membrane of respiratory epithelial cells plays a critical role in maintenance of the airway surface liquid and mucociliary clearance of pathogens. Previously, we and others have shown that the serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase-1 (SGK1) increases wild type CFTR (wt-CFTR) mediated Cl transport in Xenopus oocytes by increasing the amount of wt-CFTR protein in the plasma membrane. However, the effect of SGK1 on the membrane abundance of wt-CFTR in airway epithelial cells has not been examined, and the mechanism whereby SGK1 increases membrane wt-CFTR has also not been examined. Thus, the goal of this study was to elucidate the mechanism whereby SGK1 regulates the membrane abundance of wt-CFTR in human airway epithelial cells.
We report that elevated levels of SGK1, induced by dexamethasone, increase plasma membrane abundance of wt-CFTR. Reduction of SGK1 expression by siRNA (siSGK1) and inhibition of SGK1 activity by the SGK inhibitor GSK 650394 abrogated the ability of dexamethasone to increase plasma membrane wt-CFTR. Overexpression of a constitutively active SGK1 (SGK1-S422D) increased plasma membrane abundance of wt-CFTR. To understand the mechanism whereby SGK1 increased plasma membrane wt-CFTR, we examined the effects of siSGK1 and SGK1-S442D on the endocytic retrieval of wt-CFTR. While siSGK1 increased wt-CFTR endocytosis, SGK1-S442D inhibited CFTR endocytosis. Neither siSGK1 nor SGK1-S442D altered the recycling of endocytosed wt-CFTR back to the plasma membrane. By contrast, SGK1 increased the endocytosis of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR).
This study demonstrates for the first time that SGK1 selectively increases wt-CFTR in the plasma membrane of human airway epithelia cells by inhibiting its endocytic retrieval from the membrane.
PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e89599. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0089599 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the clinical setting, mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene enhance the inflammatory response in the lung to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) infection. However, studies on human airway epithelial cells in vitro have produced conflicting results regarding the effect of mutations in CFTR on the inflammatory response to P. aeruginosa, and there are no comprehensive studies evaluating the effect of P. aeruginosa on the inflammatory response in airway epithelial cells with the ΔF508/ΔF508 genotype and their matched CF cell line rescued with wild-type (wt)-CFTR. CFBE41o- cells (ΔF508/ΔF508) and CFBE41o- cells complemented with wt-CFTR (CFBE-wt-CFTR) have been used extensively as an experimental model to study CF. Thus the goal of this study was to examine the effect of P. aeruginosa on gene expression and cytokine/chemokine production in this pair of cells. P. aeruginosa elicited a more robust increase in cytokine and chemokine expression (e.g., IL-8, CXCL1, CXCL2 and TNF-α) in CFBE-wt-CFTR cells compared with CFBE-ΔF508-CFTR cells. These results demonstrate that CFBE41o- cells complemented with wt-CFTR mount a more robust inflammatory response to P. aeruginosa than CFBE41o-ΔF508/ΔF508-CFTR cells. Taken together with other published studies, our data demonstrate that there is no compelling evidence to support the view that mutations in CFTR induce a hyperinflammatory response in human airway epithelial cells in vivo. Although the lungs of patients with CF have abundant levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, because the lung is populated by immune cells and epithelial cells there is no way to know, a priori, whether airway epithelial cells in the CF lung in vivo are hyperinflammatory in response to P. aeruginosa compared with non-CF lung epithelial cells. Thus studies on human airway epithelial cell lines and primary cells in vitro that propose to examine the effect of mutations in CFTR on the inflammatory response to P. aeruginosa have uncertain clinical significance with regard to CF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arsenic exposure significantly increases respiratory bacterial infections and reduces the ability of the innate immune system to eliminate bacterial infections. Recently, we observed in the gill of killifish, an environmental model organism, that arsenic exposure induced the ubiquitinylation and degradation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a chloride channel that is essential for the mucociliary clearance of respiratory pathogens in humans. Accordingly, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that low dose arsenic exposure reduces the abundance and function of CFTR in human airway epithelial cells. Arsenic induced a time- and dose-dependent increase in multiubiquitinylated CFTR, which led to its lysosomal degradation, and a decrease in CFTR-mediated chloride secretion. Although arsenic had no effect on the abundance or activity of USP10, a deubiquitinylating enzyme, siRNA-mediated knockdown of c-Cbl, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, abolished the arsenic-stimulated degradation of CFTR. Arsenic enhanced the degradation of CFTR by increasing phosphorylated c-Cbl, which increased its interaction with CFTR, and subsequent ubiquitinylation of CFTR. Because epidemiological studies have shown that arsenic increases the incidence of respiratory infections, this study suggests that one potential mechanism of this effect involves arsenic-induced ubiquitinylation and degradation of CFTR, which decreases chloride secretion and airway surface liquid volume, effects that would be proposed to reduce mucociliary clearance of respiratory pathogens.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) is an environmental sentinel organism used extensively for studies on environmental toxicants and salt (NaCl) homeostasis. Previous research in our laboratory has shown that rapid acclimation of killifish to seawater is mediated by trafficking of CFTR chloride channels from intracellular vesicles to the plasma membrane in the opercular membrane within the first hour in seawater, which enhances chloride secretion into seawater, thereby contributing to salt homeostasis. Acute transition to seawater is also marked by an increase in both mRNA and protein levels of serum glucocorticoid kinase 1 (SGK1) within 15 minutes of transfer. Although the rise in SGK1 in gill and its functional analog, the opercular membrane, after seawater transfer precedes the increase in membrane CFTR, a direct role of SGK1 in elevating membrane CFTR has not been established in vivo. To test the hypothesis that SGK1 mediates the increase in plasma membrane CFTR we designed two functionally different vivo-morpholinos to knock down SGK1 in gill, and developed and validated a vivo-morpholino knock down technique for adult killifish. Injection (intraperitoneal, IP) of the splice blocking SGK1 vivo-morpholino reduced SGK1 mRNA in the gill after transition from fresh to seawater by 66%. The IP injection of the translational blocking and splice blocking vivo-morpholinos reduced gill SGK1 protein abundance in fish transferred from fresh to seawater by 64% and 53%, respectively. Moreover, knock down of SGK1 completely eliminated the seawater induced rise in plasma membrane CFTR, demonstrating that the increase in SGK1 protein is required for the trafficking of CFTR from intracellular vesicles in mitochondrion rich cells to the plasma membrane in the gill during acclimation to seawater. This is the first report of the use of vivo-morpholinos in adult killifish and demonstrates that vivo-morpholinos are a valuable genetic tool for this environmentally relevant model organism.
PLoS ONE 12/2011; 6(12):e29462. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0029462 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seawater acclimation in killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, is mediated in part by a rapid (1h) translocation of CFTR Cl(-) channels from an intracellular pool to the plasma membrane in gill and increased CFTR-mediated Cl(-) secretion. This effect is mediated by serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1), which is stimulated by plasma hypertonicity rather than cortisol. Since arsenic exposure prevents acclimation to seawater by decreasing CFTR protein levels we tested the hypothesis that arsenic (as sodium arsenite) blocks acclimation to seawater by down regulating SGK1 expression. Freshwater adapted killifish were exposed to arsenic (48h) and transferred to seawater containing arsenic, and SGK and CFTR expression were measured. Arsenic reduced the seawater induced increase in SGK1 mRNA and protein abundance, and reduced both the total amount of CFTR and the amount of CFTR in the plasma membrane. The decrease in membrane CFTR reduced Cl(-) secretion. Arsenic also increased the amount of ubiquitinated CFTR and its degradation by the lysosome. Thus, we propose a model whereby arsenic reduces the ability of killifish to acclimate to seawater by blocking the seawater induced increase in SGK1, which results in increased ubiquitination and degradation of CFTR.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Author Summary
Gram-negative pathogens are responsible for 2 million annual hospital-acquired infections, adding tremendously to U.S. healthcare costs. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic human pathogen, is commonly associated with nosocomial infections, particularly ventilator-associated infections and pseudomonal pneumonia in immunocompromised patients with cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ventilator-associated pneumonia, community-acquired pneumonia, and bronchiectasis. We have identified the mechanism for a secretion system that Gram-negative bacteria use to strategically deliver toxins to the host to promote bacterial virulence and host colonization, a pathway that we hope to target to develop new therapies to treat P. aeruginosa infections. Our findings have significant implications for the study of Gram-negative bacterial pathogenesis. We propose that secreted virulence factors are not released individually as naked proteins into the surrounding milieu where they may randomly contact the surface of the host cell, but instead bacterial-derived outer membrane vesicles (OMV) deliver multiple virulence factors simultaneously and directly into the host cell cytoplasm in a coordinated manner. This long-distance bacterial communication to the host via OMV is reminiscent of the delivery of signaling proteins and miRNA between eukaryotic cells via exosomes, and may represent a general protein secretion strategy used by both pathogen and host.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: P. aeruginosa chronically colonizes the lung in CF patients and elicits a proinflammatory response. Excessive secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by CF airway cells in response to P. aeruginosa infection in the CF airway is though to contribute to lung injury. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that Corr4a and VRT325, investigational compounds that increase DeltaF508-CFTR mediated Cl(-) secretion in human CF airway cells, reduce the pro-inflammatory response to P. aeruginosa.
IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by polarized CF human airway epithelial cells (CFBE41o-) were measured by multiplex analysis, and DeltaF508-CFTR Cl- secretion was measured in Ussing chambers. Airway cells were exposed to P. aeruginosa (PAO1 or PA14) and Corr4a or VRT325.
Corr4a and VRT325 increased DeltaF508-CFTR Cl(-) secretion but did not reduce either constitutive IL-6 or IL-8 secretion, or IL-6 and IL-8 secretion stimulated by P. aeruginosa (PA14 or PAO1).
Corr4a and VRT325 do not reduce the inflammatory response to P. aeruginosa in human cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Killifish are euryhaline teleosts that adapt to increased salinity by up regulating CFTR mediated Cl(-) secretion in the gill and opercular membrane. Although many studies have examined the mechanisms responsible for long term (days) adaptation to increased salinity, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for acute (hours) adaptation. Thus, studies were conducted to test the hypotheses that the acute homeostatic regulation of NaCl balance in killifish involves a translocation of CFTR to the plasma membrane and that this effect is mediated by serum-and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK1). Cell surface biotinyation and Ussing chamber studies revealed that freshwater to seawater transfer rapidly (1 hour) increased CFTR Cl(-) secretion and the abundance of CFTR in the plasma membrane of opercular membranes. Q-RT-PCR and Western blot studies demonstrated that the increase in plasma membrane CFTR was preceded by an increase in SGK1 mRNA and protein levels. Seawater rapidly (1 hr) increases cortisol and plasma tonicity, potent stimuli of SGK1 expression, yet RU486, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, did not block the increase in SGK1 expression. Thus, in killifish SGK1 does not appear to be regulated by the glucocorticoid receptor. Since SGK1 has been shown to increase the plasma membrane abundance of CFTR in Xenopus oocytes, these observations suggest that acute adaptation (hours) to increased salinity in killifish involves translocation of CFTR from an intracellular pool to the plasma membrane, and that this effect may be mediated by SGK1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-mediated Cl(-) secretion across fluid-transporting epithelia is regulated, in part, by modulating the number of CFTR Cl(-) channels in the plasma membrane by adjusting CFTR endocytosis and recycling. However, the mechanisms that regulate CFTR recycling in airway epithelial cells remain unknown, at least in part, because the recycling itineraries of CFTR in these cells are incompletely understood. In a previous study, we demonstrated that CFTR undergoes trafficking in Rab11a-specific apical recycling endosomes in human airway epithelial cells. Myosin Vb is a plus-end-directed, actin-based mechanoenzyme that facilitates protein trafficking in Rab11a-specific recycling vesicles in several cell model systems. There are no published studies examining the role of myosin Vb in airway epithelial cells. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine whether myosin Vb facilitates CFTR recycling in polarized human airway epithelial cells. Endogenous CFTR formed a complex with endogenous myosin Vb and Rab11a. Silencing myosin Vb by RNA-mediated interference decreased the expression of wild-type CFTR and DeltaF508-CFTR in the apical membrane and decreased CFTR-mediated Cl(-) secretion across polarized human airway epithelial cells. A recombinant tail domain fragment of myosin Vb attenuated the plasma membrane expression of CFTR by arresting CFTR recycling. The dominant-negative effect was dependent on the ability of the myosin Vb tail fragment to interact with Rab11a. Taken together, these data indicate that myosin Vb is required for CFTR recycling in Rab11a-specific apical recycling endosomes in polarized human airway epithelial cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PDZ domains are ubiquitous peptide-binding modules that mediate protein-protein interactions in a wide variety of intracellular trafficking and localization processes. These include the pathways that regulate the membrane trafficking and endocytic recycling of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an epithelial chloride channel mutated in patients with cystic fibrosis. Correspondingly, a number of PDZ proteins have now been identified that directly or indirectly interact with the C terminus of CFTR. One of these is CAL, whose overexpression in heterologous cells directs the lysosomal degradation of WT-CFTR in a dose-dependent fashion and reduces the amount of CFTR found at the cell surface. Here, we show that RNA interference targeting endogenous CAL specifically increases cell-surface expression of the disease-associated DeltaF508-CFTR mutant and thus enhances transepithelial chloride currents in a polarized human patient bronchial epithelial cell line. We have reconstituted the CAL-CFTR interaction in vitro from purified components, demonstrating for the first time that the binding is direct and allowing us to characterize its components biochemically and biophysically. To test the hypothesis that inhibition of the binding site could also reverse CAL-mediated suppression of CFTR, a three-dimensional homology model of the CAL.CFTR complex was constructed and used to generate a CAL mutant whose binding pocket is correctly folded but has lost its ability to bind CFTR. Although produced at the same levels as wild-type protein, the mutant does not affect CFTR expression levels. Taken together, our data establish CAL as a candidate therapeutic target for correction of post-maturational trafficking defects in cystic fibrosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PDZ domains are ubiquitous peptide-binding modules that mediate protein-protein interactions in a wide variety of intracellular
trafficking and localization processes. These include the pathways that regulate the membrane trafficking and endocytic recycling
of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an epithelial chloride channel mutated in patients with
cystic fibrosis. Correspondingly, a number of PDZ proteins have now been identified that directly or indirectly interact with
the C terminus of CFTR. One of these is CAL, whose overexpression in heterologous cells directs the lysosomal degradation
of WT-CFTR in a dose-dependent fashion and reduces the amount of CFTR found at the cell surface. Here, we show that RNA interference
targeting endogenous CAL specifically increases cell-surface expression of the disease-associated ΔF508-CFTR mutant and thus
enhances transepithelial chloride currents in a polarized human patient bronchial epithelial cell line. We have reconstituted
the CAL-CFTR interaction in vitro from purified components, demonstrating for the first time that the binding is direct and allowing us to characterize its
components biochemically and biophysically. To test the hypothesis that inhibition of the binding site could also reverse
CAL-mediated suppression of CFTR, a three-dimensional homology model of the CAL·CFTR complex was constructed and used to generate
a CAL mutant whose binding pocket is correctly folded but has lost its ability to bind CFTR. Although produced at the same
levels as wild-type protein, the mutant does not affect CFTR expression levels. Taken together, our data establish CAL as
a candidate therapeutic target for correction of post-maturational trafficking defects in cystic fibrosis.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2007; 282(11):8099-8109. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Killifish are euryhaline teleosts that adapt to rapid changes in the salinity of the seawater. It is generally accepted that acclimation to seawater is mediated by cortisol activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which stimulates CFTR mRNA expression and CFTR-mediated Cl- secretion by the gill. Because there is no direct evidence in killifish that the GR stimulates CFTR gene expression, quantitative PCR studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that cortisol activation of GR upregulates CFTR mRNA expression and that this response is required for acclimation to seawater. Inhibition of the GR by RU-486 prevented killifish from acclimating to increased salinity and blocked the increase in CFTR mRNA. In contrast, inhibition of the mineralocorticoid receptor by spironolactone had no effect on acclimation to seawater. Thus acclimation to increased salinity in killifish requires signaling via the GR and includes an increase in CFTR gene expression. Because arsenic, a toxic metalloid that naturally occurs in the aquatic environment, has been shown to disrupt GR transcriptional regulation in avian and mammalian systems, studies were also conducted to determine whether arsenic disrupts cortisol-mediated activation of CFTR gene expression in this in vivo fish model and thereby blocks the ability of killifish to acclimate to increased salinity. Arsenic prevented acclimation to seawater and decreased CFTR protein abundance. However, arsenic did not disrupt the GR-induced increase in CFTR mRNA. Thus arsenic blocks acclimation to seawater in killifish by a mechanism that does not disrupt GR-mediated induction of CFTR gene expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The most common mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene in individuals with cystic fibrosis, DeltaF508, causes retention of DeltaF508-CFTR in the endoplasmic reticulum and leads to the absence of CFTR Cl(-) channels in the apical plasma membrane. Rescue of DeltaF508-CFTR by reduced temperature or chemical means reveals that the DeltaF508 mutation reduces the half-life of DeltaF508-CFTR in the apical plasma membrane. Because DeltaF508-CFTR retains some Cl(-) channel activity, increased expression of DeltaF508-CFTR in the apical membrane could serve as a potential therapeutic approach for cystic fibrosis. However, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the short apical membrane half-life of DeltaF508-CFTR in polarized human airway epithelial cells. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to determine the cellular defects in the trafficking of rescued DeltaF508-CFTR that lead to the decreased apical membrane half-life of DeltaF508-CFTR in polarized human airway epithelial cells. We report that in polarized human airway epithelial cells (CFBE41o-) the DeltaF508 mutation increased endocytosis of CFTR from the apical membrane without causing a global endocytic defect or affecting the endocytic recycling of CFTR in the Rab11a-specific apical recycling compartment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cyclic AMP-regulated Cl(-) channel expressed in the apical plasma membrane in fluid-transporting epithelia. Although CFTR is rapidly endocytosed from the apical membrane of polarized epithelial cells and efficiently recycled back to the plasma membrane, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating CFTR endocytosis and endocytic recycling. Myosin VI, an actin-dependent, minus-end directed mechanoenzyme, has been implicated in clathrin-mediated endocytosis in epithelial cells. The goal of this study was to determine whether myosin VI regulates CFTR endocytosis. Endogenous, apical membrane CFTR in polarized human airway epithelial cells (Calu-3) formed a complex with myosin VI, the myosin VI adaptor protein Disabled 2 (Dab2), and clathrin. The tail domain of myosin VI, a dominant-negative recombinant fragment, displaced endogenous myosin VI from interacting with Dab2 and CFTR and increased the expression of CFTR in the plasma membrane by reducing CFTR endocytosis. However, the myosin VI tail fragment had no effect on the recycling of endocytosed CFTR or on fluid-phase endocytosis. CFTR endocytosis was decreased by cytochalasin D, an actin-filament depolymerizing agent. Taken together, these data indicate that myosin VI and Dab2 facilitate CFTR endocytosis by a mechanism that requires actin filaments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) contributes to sodium retention during diabetes. TNF selectively stimulates sodium uptake in distal tubule cells isolated from diabetic rats, but not in cells from control rats. We propose that distal tubule cells are sensitized to acute effects of TNF during diabetes.
We examined acute TNF-stimulated sodium uptake in distal tubule cells chronically cultured with exogenous TNF and in distal tubule cells freshly isolated from diabetic rats treated with a specific TNF inhibitor. We also tested the sodium transport and intracellular signaling pathway underlying TNF-induced sodium transport with pharmacologic inhibitors.
Chronic TNF exposure in vitro sensitized distal tubule cells to the acute effects of TNF in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and TNF inhibition in vivo during diabetes prevented distal tubule sensitization. TNF receptor expression was equivalent in distal tubule cells from both control and diabetic rats. In sensitized distal tubule cells, TNF-stimulated sodium uptake was blocked by amiloride and PD098059, inhibitors of epithelial sodium channels and extracellular signal-related protein kinase (ERK) activation, respectively.
TNF alters distal tubule sodium transport during diabetes through consecutive chronic and acute effects. Chronic TNF exposure leads to distal tubule sensitization that permits acute TNF-induced activation of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). These findings are consistent with a sequential mechanism by which chronic and acute TNF actions at the distal tubule cellular level contribute to whole animal sodium retention during diabetes.
Kidney International 06/2004; 65(5):1676-83. DOI:10.1111/j.1523-1755.2004.00606.x · 8.56 Impact Factor