[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The management of hemangiomas has always been a matter of controversy. Traditionally, observation has been the mainstay of therapy, with the expectation that most of the lesions will disappear spontaneously. This treatment plan was based on the premise that surgical excision or other treatments might produce a worse result than simply waiting for the lesion to resolve with an acceptable cosmetic result. This plan has been challenged because of a growing number of specialty teams that address these lesions. This article examines various cases of pediatric hemangioma and evaluates the possibility of surgical excision as a first-choice treatment in these cases. One hundred fifteen cases of surgical excision of pediatric hemangiomas performed by a single surgeon over a period of 7 years were examined. Pre- and postoperative photographs were examined. Hemangioma location, size, and type; patient's age; and surgical technique are described. Acceptable cosmetic and functional results were achieved in all surgical cases. Early excision of hemangioma should be the procedure of choice in selected cases of hemangioma. Hemangiomas in areas where a significant cosmetic defect or functional defect might ensue should have surgical excision considered as first-line treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Flaps have long been recognized as an essential tool for soft-tissue reconstruction. Flaps range in complexity from local to free and perforator flaps and can include a variety of composite tissues. The concept of a flow-through flap, in which both the proximal and the distal ends of the vascular pedicle of a free flap are anastamosed to provide blood flow to distal tissues, was first described by Soutar et al. in 1983. An uninterrupted arterial flow was established by Soutar et al. between the external carotid and distal facial artery via a radial forearm flap for head and neck reconstruction (Soutar et al., Br J Plast Surg 1983;36:1-8). Shortly thereafter, Foucher et al. were the first to report the reconstruction of an extremity with a simultaneous vascular defect by utilizing a radial forearm flow-through flap (Foucher et al., Br J Plast Surg 1984;37:139-148). The utility of the flow-through flap is now well established, and its indications for use continue to grow. The principle advantage of this flap is that it provides the opportunity for a single stage composite reconstruction of both soft tissue and vascular defects, making it particularly useful in the reconstruction of ischemic extremities and defects from oncologic ablations. Improvements in microsurgical equipment and techniques are making early difficulties with these flaps irrelevant, giving plastic surgeons opportunities to become more creative in the choices and uses of flow-through flaps. The literature consists mostly of case reports and series. The nomenclature used to describe the types of flow-through flaps is confusing and inconsistent. The purpose of this article is to provide an organized review of flow-through flaps and to classify these flaps based on their inflow, outflow, and the nature of their vascular conduit. Additionally, we have included a discussion on the physiology of these flaps, reviewed the current literature, and summarized the various types of flow-through flaps in a reference guide that can aid in flap selection.