[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sugarcane bagasse is one of the most promising agricultural by-products for conversion to biofuels. Here, ethanol fermentation from bagasse has been achieved using an integrated process combining mechanical pretreatment by ball milling, with enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Ball milling for 2 h was sufficient for nearly complete cellulose structural transformation to an accessible amorphous form. The pretreated cellulosic residues were hydrolyzed by a crude enzyme preparation from Penicillium chrysogenum BCC4504 containing cellulase activity combined with Aspergillus flavus BCC7179 preparation containing complementary beta-glucosidase activity. Saccharification yields of 84.0% and 70.4% for glucose and xylose, respectively, were obtained after hydrolysis at 45 degrees C, pH 5 for 72 h, which were slightly higher than those obtained with a commercial enzyme mixture containing Acremonium cellulase and Optimash BG. A high conversion yield of undetoxified pretreated bagasse (5%, w/v) hydrolysate to ethanol was attained by separate hydrolysis and fermentation processes using Pichia stipitis BCC15191, at pH 5.5, 30 degrees C for 24 h resulting in an ethanol concentration of 8.4 g/l, corresponding to a conversion yield of 0.29 g ethanol/g available fermentable sugars. Comparable ethanol conversion efficiency was obtained by a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process which led to production of 8.0 g/l ethanol after 72 h fermentation under the same conditions. This study thus demonstrated the potential use of a simple integrated process with minimal environmental impact with the use of promising alternative on-site enzymes and yeast for the production of ethanol from this potent lignocellulosic biomass.
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 07/2010; 110(1):18-25. · 1.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have screened 766 strains of fungi from the BIOTEC Culture Collection (BCC) for xylanases working in extreme pH and/or high temperature conditions, the so-called extreme xylanases. From a total number of 32 strains producing extreme xylanases, the strain BCC7928, identified by using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence of rRNA to be a Marasmius sp., was chosen for further characterization because of its high xylanolytic activity at temperature as high as 90 degrees C. The crude enzyme possessed high thermostability and pH stability. Purification of this xylanase was carried out using an anion exchanger followed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography, yielding the enzyme with >90% homogeneity. The molecular mass of the enzyme was approximately 40 kDa. The purified enzyme retained broad working pH range of 4-8 and optimal temperature of 90 degrees C. When using xylan from birchwood as substrate, it exhibits Km and Vmax values of 2.6 +/- 0.6 mg/ml and 428 +/- 26 U/mg, respectively. The enzyme rapidly hydrolysed xylans from birchwood, beechwood, and exhibited lower activity on xylan from wheatbran, or celluloses from carboxymethylcellulose and Avicel. The purified enzyme was highly stable at temperature ranges from 50 to 70 degrees C. It retained 84% of its maximal activity after incubation in standard buffer containing 1% xylan substrate at 70 degrees C for 3 h. This thermostable xylanase should therefore be useful for several industrial applications, such as agricultural, food and biofuel.
Journal of biochemistry and molecular biology 01/2006; 39(1):105-10. · 2.02 Impact Factor