B. M. A. Genswein

The University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

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Publications (7)9.15 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between feeding behavior and performance of 274 feedlot cattle was evaluated using Charolais cross steers from 2 consecutive years averaging 293 ± 41 kg for yr 1 (n = 115) and 349 ± 41 for yr 2 (n = 159). Steers were blocked by BW and assigned to 3 (yr 1) or 4 (yr 2) feedlot pens equipped with a radio frequency identification system (GrowSafe Systems). Each pen contained 5 feeding stalls that allowed individual animal access to a feed tub suspended on load cells. The system recorded animal identification, duration, and frequency of feedings as well as the amount of feed consumed during each visit. Daily variation in DMI (DVI), calculated as the absolute difference in DMI from one day to the next, as well as eating rate were determined for each steer. Barley-based diets were delivered to meet steer ad libitum intake over the 213- and 181-d feeding periods for yr 1 and 2 of the study, respectively. The backgrounding periods included the first 85 and 56 d of yr 1 and 2, respectively, in which steers were fed a 14 to 30% concentrate diet, whereas the finishing periods included the last 116 and 101 d of feeding in yr 1 and 2, respectively, with the diet consisting of 77.9% concentrate. Steers were weighed individually every 14 d. To relate feeding behavior to performance, steers were grouped by ADG and G:F and categorized as high, average, or low (based on 1 SD greater than and less than the mean). In the backgrounding and finishing periods of both years of the study, steers classified as having high ADG exhibited greater (P < 0.001) DVI than steers classified as having average or low ADG. Total daily DMI was also greater (P < 0.001) for steers in the high ADG group than those in the low ADG group. Overall, those steers with the greatest G:F also tended (P = 0.15) to have greater DVI than average or low G:F steers. Compared with average or low G:F steers, DMI by high G:F steers in both years of the study was less during backgrounding, finishing, and overall (P = 0.02). Bunk visits and bunk attendance duration were less frequent and shorter (P ≤ 0.01) overall for high compared with low G:F steers. In this study, steers with more variable eating patterns exhibited greater ADG and tended to have greater G:F, a finding that is contrary to industry perception.
    Journal of Animal Science 04/2011; 89(4):1180-92. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Animals housed in intensive production systems typically face a certain level of competition for resources such as feed. In many intensive housing systems animals are forced to actively compete for access to food resources. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between competition and feeding behaviour, and to describe the variability of this relationship among beef heifers fed in a highly competitive environment. We anticipated that heifers would vary in how they would compete for access to feed. For those engaging in agonistic interactions, those that were competitively successful would feed longer and at a slower feeding rate. Forty-five crossbred (Hereford, Charolais and Angus) beef heifers (520.5±32kg body weight; BW) were randomly assigned to 3 pens of 15 animals. Pens were fitted with two radio frequency equipped feed tubs that monitored individual animal dry matter intake (DMI; kg), feed bunk attendance frequency (count), duration of feed bunk attendance (min) and eating rate of the heifers (g/min); all feeding behaviour data was summarized by hour. All agonistic behaviours resulting in successful access or maintenance of a feeding position were recorded from 0900h to 2200h on 3 separate days, and summarized per hour. Across the three groups, there was a positive relationship between the number of successful agonistic interactions (SAI) displayed and DMI (y=0.028x+0.557, R2=0.26, P
    Livestock Science - LIVEST SCI. 01/2011; 137(1):1-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The differentially virulent race T1 of common bunt (Tilletia tritici) was used to inoculate the wheat lines Neepawa (compatible) and its sib BW553 (incompatible) that are nearly isogenic for the Bt-10 resistance gene. Inoculated crown tissues were used to construct a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library. Of the 1920 clones arrayed from the SSH cDNA library, approximately 10 % were differentially regulated. A total of 168 differentially up-regulated and 25 downregulated genes were identified and sequenced; 71 % sequences had significant homology to genes of known function, of which 59 % appeared to have roles in cellular metabolism and development, 24 % in abiotic/biotic stress responses, 3 % involved in transcription and signal transduction responses. Two putative resistance genes and a transcription factor were identified among the upregulated sequences. The expression of several candidate genes including a lipase, two non-specific lipid transfer proteins (ns-LTPs), and several wheat pathogenesis-related (PR)-proteins, was evaluated following 4 to 32 days postinoculation in compatible and incompatible interactions. Results confirmed the higher overall expression of these genes in resistant BW553 compared to susceptible Neepawa, and the differential up-regulation of wheat lipase, chitinase and PR-1 proteins in the expression of the incompatible interaction.
    Journal of biochemistry and molecular biology 08/2005; 38(4):420-31. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 95-day study (June 25-September 27, 2001) was conducted using 120 steers (311.9+/-2.4 kg) randomly allocated to two treatments: (1) mineral containing 0.55% fenbendazole (FBZ) and (2) control, no FBZ in the mineral. Animals in the FBZ group were individually identified by an electronic tag that was read each time an animal attended the mineral feeder. The feeder was equipped with load cells that enabled individual mineral intakes to be estimated. The FBZ group was provided with non-medicated mineral during a 14-day adaptation period (July 23-August 5) and an 8-day post-medication period (September 17-24). The intake of FBZ was monitored for 14 days during each of the two treatment periods; August 6-19 and September 3-16, separated by a 14-day non-medicated period, August 20-September 2. Control animals had access to non-medicated mineral for the entire 95-day study period. All steers were grazed on alfalfa-grass pasture for the duration of the study and had free access to flocculated, filtered and chlorinated water via an automatic waterer. Fecal samples were collected from steers three times during the experiment July 23, August 27 and September 27, and analyzed for nematode eggs and Giardia sp. cysts. Seventy-five and 83% of the steers in the FBZ group visited the mineral feeder during the first and second treatment periods, respectively. Individual daily mineral and FBZ intake for the first and second treatment periods was 52.9+/-6.6g per day and 10.1+/-1.2mg/kg BW; 72.3+/-8.4 g per day and 11.8+/-1.4 mg/kg BW, respectively. FBZ animals were separated into three groups during each treatment period based on the recommended dose (RD) of FBZ (5 mg/kg/BW), those that received > the RD, those that received < RD but > 50% RD and those that received < 50% of RD. Nematode egg counts and the number of animals infected with nematodes was reduced (p < 0.05) in all cattle that consumed FBZ as compared to control animals. In contrast to nematode eggs, numbers of Giardia cysts was not reduced (p > 0.05) by FBZ as compared to controls in either treatment period. These results may be a reflection of Giardia re-infection occurring following treatment and highlight the need for variation in treatment regimes specifically targeted at the parasite of interest.
    Veterinary Parasitology 04/2005; 129(1-2):35-41. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    Bernie M. A. Genswein, Yee-Hong Yang
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    ABSTRACT: This paper introduces a new discrete Hough transform, DHT, that pre-computes discrete line information (rules) and uses this information to detect line segments in the image. Pre-computing line information removes the need for run-time line calculations and the associated parameters. The proposed approach does not depend on the parameterization of a straight line and is formulated based on the discrete domain. This new DHT is compared with selected existing techniques to demonstrate the large reduction in computation time achieved by this new approach, while not sacrificing accuracy.
    International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence 01/1999; 13:615-641. · 0.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thirty-three steers (328 +/- 2 kg) from a total of 300 animals were randomly selected for a comparison of techniques designed to quantify the behavioral response to painful procedures. The steers were randomly assigned to freeze-branding, (F), hot-iron branding (H), and sham branding (S) treatments. The responses of all steers were videotaped to quantify the amount and intensity of head movements during branding. In addition, the force that steers exerted on the headgate and squeeze chute during branding was recorded using strain gauges and load cells. Behaviors believed to be indicative of pain (tail-flicking, kicking, falling, and vocalizing) were also recorded during branding. These techniques were compared for their effectiveness in measuring behavioral responses of steers during branding. Hot-iron-branded steers had greater maximum and average head movement distances and velocities than F or S steers (P < .05), and F steers only had greater maximum values than S animals (P < .05). The maximum exertion forces obtained from headgate load cells were also greater in H than in F or S steers (P < .05); however, no differences were observed between H and F treatments for squeeze load cell or headgate strain gauge data. Hot-iron-branded steers had the greatest incidence of tail-flicks, kicks, falls in the chute, and vocalizations, and S steers had the least. Results indicate that H steers experienced more discomfort at the time of branding than F and S steers, whereas F steers experienced more discomfort than shams. Image analysis was a superior technique for detecting treatment differences compared with exertion force measurements and frequency counts of tail-flicks, kicks, falls, and vocalization during branding.
    Journal of Animal Science 04/1998; 76(4):972-9. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Indivi dual feed intake was recorded during 84-dgrowing,and 112-d finishingperi ods onCharo lais- sired cr ossbred,steers (n = 410). Steers cons umed,a barleysilage- based diet during the growingperi od,and a barley grain-based,diet du ring th e fi nishing peri od. Following finishing, steers were harvested at a commercial,packing,facility where,carcass d ata were collected 24 h postm,ortem. Net feed eff iciency was estimated for,the growing,(NFG) and fini shing (NFF) periods using,linear regression procedures,such,that within-period phenotypic correlations ,of efficiency measureswith average,daily gain and averagemetab,olic body weight were zero. Net feed efficiency during the growing(fi nishing) period variedfrom,an efficient-4. 10 (-4.77) kg,per d to an inef ficient 4.65 (3.30) kg per d. Using an ,animal model ,and ,restricted ,maximum likelihood, genetic parameters were estimated among NFG, NF F, and age-a djusted (463 d) carcass traits, includinghot carcass weight (HCW), fatthickness (FAT), longissimus musc le area (RE A), and ma rbling score (MAR). Th e relatio nship,matrix among,975 a nimals included a minimum,of a three generation for the 34 Charolaisbulls that sired steers with records. Heritability estimateswere,moderate forNFG (0.30 ± 0.06)and,NFF (0.26 ± 0.07), whereas carcass trait heritabil ities were constrainedto literature averages to avoid convergence failure. Phenotypic,and g enetic v ariance,estimates for NFG were,higher than those for,NFF. The gene tic correlation betwe,en NFG and,NFF was 0.55. G enetic correlationsof NFGand,NFFwi thHCW and,REAwere