[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Viruses use cellular machinery to enter and infect cells. In this study we address the cell entry mechanisms of nonenveloped adenoviruses (Ads). We show that protein VI, an internal capsid protein, is rapidly exposed after cell surface attachment and internalization and remains partially associated with the capsid during intracellular transport. We found that a PPxY motif within protein VI recruits Nedd4 E3 ubiquitin ligases to bind and ubiquitylate protein VI. We further show that this PPxY motif is involved in rapid, microtubule-dependent intracellular movement of protein VI. Ads with a mutated PPxY motif can efficiently escape endosomes but are defective in microtubule-dependent trafficking toward the nucleus. Likewise, depletion of Nedd4 ligases attenuates nuclear accumulation of incoming Ad particles and infection. Our data provide the first evidence that virus-encoded PPxY motifs are required during virus entry, which may be of significance for several other pathogens.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIPK2 is a eukaryotic Serine-Threonine kinase that controls cellular proliferation and survival in response to exogenous signals. Here, we show that the human transcription factor ZBTB4 is a new target of HIPK2. The two proteins interact in vitro, colocalize and associate in vivo, and HIPK2 phosphorylates several conserved residues of ZBTB4. Overexpressing HIPK2 causes the degradation of ZBTB4, whereas overexpressing a kinase-deficient mutant of HIPK2 has no effect. The chemical activation of HIPK2 also decreases the amount of ZBTB4 in cells. Conversely, the inhibition of HIPK2 by drugs or by RNA interference causes a large increase in ZBTB4 levels. This negative regulation of ZBTB4 by HIPK2 occurs under normal conditions of cell growth. In addition, the degradation is increased by DNA damage. These findings have two consequences. First, we have recently shown that ZBTB4 inhibits the transcription of p21. Therefore, the activation of p21 by HIPK2 is two-pronged: stimulation of the activator p53, and simultaneous repression of the inhibitor ZBTB4. Second, ZBTB4 is also known to bind methylated DNA and repress methylated sequences. Consequently, our findings raise the possibility that HIPK2 might influence the epigenetic regulation of gene expression at loci that remain to be identified.