ABSTRACT: ATP and ADP are known to play inhibitory and activating roles, respectively, in the regulation of dynein motile activity of flagella. To elucidate how these nucleotide functions are related to the regulation of normal flagellar beating, we examined their effects on the motility of reactivated sea urchin sperm flagella at low pH. At pH 7.0-7.2 which is lower than the physiological pH of 8, about 90% of reactivated flagella were motionless at 1 mM ATP, while about 60% were motile at 0.02 mM ATP. The motionless flagella at 1 mM ATP maintained a single large bend or an S-shaped bend, indicating formation of dynein crossbridges in the axoneme. The ATP-dependent inhibition of flagellar movement was released by ADP, and was absent in outer arm-depleted flagella. Similar inhibition was also observed at 0.02 mM ATP when demembranated flagella were reactivated in the presence of Li+ or pretreated with protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). ADP also released this type of ATP-inhibition. In PP1-pretreated axonemes the binding of a fluorescent analogue of ADP to dynein decreased. Under elastase-treatment at pH 8.0, the beating of demembranated flagella at 1 mM ATP and 0.02 mM ATP lasted for approximately 100 and 45 s, respectively. The duration of beating at 0.02 mM ATP was prolonged by Li+, and that at 1 mM ATP was shortened by removal of outer arms. These results indicate that the regulation of on/off switching of dynein motile activity of flagella involves ATP-induced inhibition and ADP-induced activation, probably through phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of outer arm-linked protein(s).
Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 11/2007; 64(10):777-93. · 4.19 Impact Factor