ABSTRACT: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) management changed dramatically with the development of imatinib mesylate (IM), the first tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting the BCR-ABL1 oncoprotein. In Sweden, the drug was approved in November 2001. We report relative survival (RS) of patients with CML diagnosed during a 36-year period.
Using data from the population-based Swedish Cancer Registry and population life tables, we estimated RS for all patients diagnosed with CML from 1973 to 2008 (n = 3173; 1796 males and 1377 females; median age, 62 years). Patients were categorized into five age groups and five calendar periods, the last being 2001 to 2008. Information on use of upfront IM was collected from the Swedish CML registry.
Relative survival improved with each calendar period, with the greatest improvement between 1994-2000 and 2001-2008. Five-year cumulative relative survival ratios (95% CIs) were 0.21 (0.17 to 0.24) for patients diagnosed 1973-1979, 0.54 (0.50 to 0.58) for 1994-2000, and 0.80 (0.75 to 0.83) for 2001-2008. This improvement was confined to patients younger than 79 years of age. Five-year RSRs for patients diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 were 0.91 (95% CI, 0.85 to 0.94) and 0.25 (95% CI, 0.10 to 0.47) for patients younger than 50 and older than 79 years, respectively. Men had inferior outcome. Upfront overall use of IM increased from 40% (2002) to 84% (2006). Only 18% of patients older than 80 years of age received IM as first-line therapy.
This large population-based study shows a major improvement in outcome of patients with CML up to 79 years of age diagnosed from 2001 to 2008, mainly caused by an increasing use of IM. The elderly still have poorer outcome, partly because of a limited use of IM.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 06/2011; 29(18):2514-20. · 18.37 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) reduces relapse rates in acute leukemia, but outcome is hampered by toxicity. Population-based data avoid patient selection and may therefore substitute for lack of randomized trials.
We evaluated alloSCT rates within the Swedish Acute Leukemia Registry, including 3899 adult patients diagnosed from 1997 through 2006 with a coverage of 98% and a median follow-up of 6.2 years.
AlloSCT rates and survival decreased rapidly with age >55 years. The 8-year overall survival (OS) was 65% in patients <30 years and 38% in patients <60 years and was similar for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Among 1073 patients <60 years, alloSCT was performed in 42% and 49% of patients with AML and ALL, respectively. Two-thirds of the alloSCTs were performed in first complete remission, and half used unrelated donors, the same in AML and ALL. Regional differences in management and outcome were found: 60% of AML patients <40 years received alloSCT in all parts of Sweden, but two-thirds of AML patients 40-59 years had alloSCT in one region compared with one-third in other regions (P<.001), with improved 8-year OS among all AML patients in this age cohort (51% vs 30%; P = .005).
More Swedish AML patients received alloSCT, and long-term survival was better than in recently published large international studies, despite our lack of selection bias. There was no correlation between alloSCT rate and survival in ALL. In adult AML patients <60 years of age, a high alloSCT rate was associated with better long-term survival, but there was no such correlation in ALL.
Cancer 03/2011; 117(18):4238-46. · 4.77 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is most common in the elderly, and most elderly are thought to be unfit for intensive treatment because of the risk of fatal toxicity. The Swedish Acute Leukemia Registry covers 98% of all patients with AML (nonacute promyelocytic leukemia) diagnosed in 1997 to 2005 (n = 2767), with a median follow-up of 5 years, and reports eligibility for intensive therapy, performance status (PS), complete remission rates, and survival. Outcomes were strongly age and PS dependent. Early death rates were always lower with intensive therapy than with palliation only. Long-term survivors were found among elderly given intensive treatment despite poor initial PS. Total survival of elderly AML patients was better in the geographic regions where most of them were given standard intensive therapy. This analysis provides unique real world data from a large, complete, and unselected AML population, both treated and untreated, and gives background to treatment decisions for the elderly. Standard intensive treatment improves early death rates and long-term survival compared with palliation. Most AML patients up to 80 years of age should be considered fit for intensive therapy, and new therapies must be compared with standard induction.
Blood 12/2008; 113(18):4179-87. · 9.90 Impact Factor