[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT:
Propanil (3,4-dichloropropionanilide) is a selective contact pesticide, recommended for post-emergence use in rice. This herbicide may end up in surface waters and present potential risk for aquatic vascular plants. Therefore, its toxicity was evaluated on Lemna minor L., an aquatic plant regularly used for toxicological studies, during time- and concentration-dependent exposure. Toxicity assessments were based on inhibition of growth of L. minor cultures after 24 days. The obtained results showed that the growth of Lemna was affected by the herbicide. The responses of the guaiacol peroxidase (G-POD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) involved in the xenobiotic metabolism and antioxidative system were also investigated following Propanil exposure. Our results showed that Propanil has not induced enzymatic antioxidative defenses of L. minor. Both 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) and 3,4-dichloroacetanilide are the major metabolites in this plant. On the contrary, only 3,4-DCA was found in culture media after 4 days. Probably, the enzymatic hydrolysis by acyl acylamidase and the acetylation by acetyl-CoA are the major pathways for these transformation products, respectively. The results of this study showed that the selected aquatic plant has the potential to accumulate and metabolize rice herbicide, like Propanil. Based on these toxicity data this herbicide should impair the establishment of non-target aquatic plants.