A. S. Hales

University of Chile, CiudadSantiago, Santiago, Chile

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Publications (24)97.23 Total impact

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    07/2015; 808(1). DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/808/1/L3
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    ABSTRACT: It is thought that planetary mass companions may form through gravitational disk instabilities or core accretion. Identifying such objects in the process of formation would provide the most direct test for the competing formation theories. One of the most promising candidates for a planetary mass object still in formation is the third object in the FWTau system. We here present ALMA cycle 1 observations confirming the recently published 1.3 mm detection of a dust disk around this third object and present for the first time a clear detection of a single peak 12CO(2-1) line, providing direct evidence for the simultaneous existence of a gas disk. We perform radiative transfer modeling of the third object in FW Tau and find that current observations are consistent with a planetary mass object embedded in a disk which is externally irradiated by the binary companion and seen at an inclination of i<15 deg. However, we also find that a near edge-on disk around a more massive substellar object can explain the observations if cloud contamination causes the single peak shape of the 12CO(2-1) line. Although this possibility appears less likely, further observations with ALMA, aiming for the detection of less contaminated gas lines, are required to conclusively unveil the nature of the third object in FWTau.
    04/2015; 806(2). DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/806/2/L22
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    ABSTRACT: A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ~15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried out from September to late November 2014, culminating in end-to-end observations, calibrations, and imaging of selected Science Verification (SV) targets. This paper presents an overview of the campaign and its main results, including an investigation of the short-term coherence properties and systematic phase errors over the long baselines at the ALMA site, a summary of the SV targets and observations, and recommendations for science observing strategies at long baselines. Deep ALMA images of the quasar 3C138 at 97 and 241 GHz are also compared to VLA 43 GHz results, demonstrating an agreement at a level of a few percent. As a result of the extensive program of LBC testing, the highly successful SV imaging at long baselines achieved angular resolutions as fine as 19 mas at ~350 GHz. Observing with ALMA on baselines of up to 15 km is now possible, and opens up new parameter space for submm astronomy.
    04/2015; 808(1). DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/808/1/L1
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    ABSTRACT: A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ~15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried out from September to late November 2014, culminating in end-to-end observations, calibrations, and imaging of selected Science Verification (SV) targets. This paper presents an overview of the campaign and its main results, including an investigation of the short-term coherence properties and systematic phase errors over the long baselines at the ALMA site, a summary of the SV targets and observations, and recommendations for science observing strategies at long baselines. Deep ALMA images of the quasar 3C138 at 97 and 241 GHz are also compared to VLA 43 GHz results, demonstrating an agreement at a level of a few percent. As a result of the extensive program of LBC testing, the highly successful SV imaging at long baselines achieved angular resolutions as fine as 19 mas at ~350 GHz. Observing with ALMA on baselines of up to 15 km is now possible, and opens up new parameter space for submm astronomy.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 04/2015; · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations from the 2014 Long Baseline Campaign in dust continuum and spectral line emission from the HL Tau region. The continuum images at wavelengths of 2.9, 1.3, and 0.87 mm have unprecedented angular resolutions of 0.075 arcseconds (10 AU) to 0.025 arcseconds (3.5 AU), revealing an astonishing level of detail in the circumstellar disk surrounding the young solar analogue HL Tau, with a pattern of bright and dark rings observed at all wavelengths. By fitting ellipses to the most distinct rings, we measure precise values for the disk inclination (46.72pm0.05 degrees) and position angle (+138.02pm0.07 degrees). We obtain a high-fidelity image of the 1.0 mm spectral index ($\alpha$), which ranges from $\alpha\sim2.0$ in the optically-thick central peak and two brightest rings, increasing to 2.3-3.0 in the dark rings. The dark rings are not devoid of emission, we estimate a grain emissivity index of 0.8 for the innermost dark ring and lower for subsequent dark rings, consistent with some degree of grain growth and evolution. Additional clues that the rings arise from planet formation include an increase in their central offsets with radius and the presence of numerous orbital resonances. At a resolution of 35 AU, we resolve the molecular component of the disk in HCO+ (1-0) which exhibits a pattern over LSR velocities from 2-12 km/s consistent with Keplerian motion around a ~1.3 solar mass star, although complicated by absorption at low blue-shifted velocities. We also serendipitously detect and resolve the nearby protostars XZ Tau (A/B) and LkHa358 at 2.9 mm.
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    ABSTRACT: We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 1.3 mm continuum images of the asteroid 3 Juno obtained with an angular resolution of 0.042 arcseconds (60 km at 1.97 AU). The data were obtained over a single 4.4 hr interval, which covers 60% of the 7.2 hr rotation period, approximately centered on local transit. A sequence of ten consecutive images reveals continuous changes in the asteroid's profile and apparent shape, in good agreement with the sky projection of the three-dimensional model of the Database of Asteroid Models from Inversion Techniques. We measure a geometric mean diameter of 259pm4 km, in good agreement with past estimates from a variety of techniques and wavelengths. Due to the viewing angle and inclination of the rotational pole, the southern hemisphere dominates all of the images. The median peak brightness temperature is 215pm13 K, while the median over the whole surface is 197pm15 K. With the unprecedented resolution of ALMA, we find that the brightness temperature varies across the surface with higher values correlated to the subsolar point and afternoon areas, and lower values beyond the evening terminator. The dominance of the subsolar point is accentuated in the final four images, suggesting a reduction in the thermal inertia of the regolith at the corresponding longitudes, which are possibly correlated to the location of the putative large impact crater. These results demonstrate ALMA's potential to resolve thermal emission from the surface of main belt asteroids, and to measure accurately their position, geometric shape, rotational period, and soil characteristics.
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    ABSTRACT: We present initial results of very high resolution Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the $z$=3.042 gravitationally lensed galaxy HATLAS J090311.6+003906 (SDP.81). These observations were carried out using an extended configuration as part of Science Verification for the 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign, with baselines of up to 15 km. We present continuum imaging at 151, 236 and 290 GHz, at angular resolutions as fine as 23 milliarcseconds (mas; corresponding to an un-magnified spatial scale of 180 pc at z=3.042). The ALMA images clearly show two main gravitational arc components with emission tracing a radius of 1.5". We also present imaging of CO(10-9), CO(8-7), CO(5-4) and H2O line emission. The CO data has an angular resolution of 170 mas and the emission is found to broadly trace the gravitational arc structures. We detect H2O line emission but only using the shortest baselines. The ALMA continuum and spectral line fluxes are consistent with previous Plateau de Bure Interferometer and Submillimeter Array observations despite the increase in angular resolution. Finally, we detect weak unresolved continuum emission at all three observed frequencies from a position that is spatially coincident with the centre of the foreground lensing galaxy.
    03/2015; 808(1). DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/808/1/L4
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    ABSTRACT: Inner cavities and annular gaps in circumstellar disks are possible signposts of giant planet formation. The young star HD 142527 hosts a massive protoplanetary disk with a large cavity that extends up to 140 au from the central star, as seen in continuum images at infrared and millimeter wavelengths. Estimates of the survival of gas inside disk cavities are needed to discriminate between clearing scenarios. We present a spatially and spectrally resolved carbon monoxide isotopologue observations of the gas-rich disk HD 142527, in the J=2-1 line of 12CO, 13CO and C18O, obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). We detect emission coming from inside the dust-depleted cavity in all three isotopologues. Based on our analysis of the gas in the dust cavity, the 12CO emission is optically thick, while 13CO and C18O emission are both optically thin. The total mass of residual gas inside the cavity is about 1.5-2 Jupiter masses. We model the gas with an axisymmetric disk model. Our best fit model shows that the cavity radius is much smaller in CO than it is in millimeter continuum and scattered light observations, with a gas cavity that does not extend beyond 105 au (at 3-sigma). The gap wall at its outer edge is diffuse and smooth in the gas distribution, while in dust continuum it is manifestly sharper. The inclination angle, as estimated from the high velocity channel maps, is 28+/-0.5 degrees, higher than in previous estimates, assuming a fix central star mass of 2.2 Solar masses.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2015; 798(2):85. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/798/2/85 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The INT/WFC Photometric Hα Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane (IPHAS) is a 1800 deg2 imaging survey covering Galactic latitudes |b| < 5° and longitudes ℓ = 30°–215° in the r, i, and Hα filters using the Wide Field Camera (WFC) on the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) in La Palma. We present the first quality-controlled and globally calibrated source catalogue derived from the survey, providing single-epoch photometry for 219 million unique sources across 92 per cent of the footprint. The observations were carried out between 2003 and 2012 at a median seeing of 1.1 arcsec (sampled at 0.33 arcsec pixel−1) and to a mean 5σ depth of 21.2 (r), 20.0 (i), and 20.3 (Hα) in the Vega magnitude system. We explain the data reduction and quality control procedures, describe and test the global re-calibration, and detail the construction of the new catalogue. We show that the new calibration is accurate to 0.03 mag (root mean square) and recommend a series of quality criteria to select accurate data from the catalogue. Finally, we demonstrate the ability of the catalogue's unique (r − Hα, r − i) diagram to (i) characterize stellar populations and extinction regimes towards different Galactic sightlines and (ii) select and quantify Hα emission-line objects. IPHAS is the first survey to offer comprehensive CCD photometry of point sources across the Galactic plane at visible wavelengths, providing the much-needed counterpart to recent infrared surveys.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 06/2014; 444(4). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu1651 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DX Cha (HD 104237) is a southern, optically bright Herbig Ae star with an infrared excess, that is part of a small stellar group younger than 5 Myr. We used the APEX and ASTE submillimeter telescopes in Chile to search for continuum and gas emission around this system. Using LABOCA on APEX we detect strong continuum emission around HD104237-A and system component HD104237-E. Our ASTE spectrum detects a double-peaked 12CO(3-2) line profile towards the system, typical of a rotating disk. The new data are used as constraints with MCFOST to produce a disk model that fits the entire SED as well as the observed CO line profile.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 06/2014; DOI:10.1017/S174392131300820X
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    ABSTRACT: We carried out a 12CO(3-2) survey of 52 southern stars with a wide range of IR excesses (LIR/L*) using the single dish telescopes APEX and ASTE. The main aims were (1) to characterize the evolution of molecular gas in circumstellar disks using LIR/L* values as a proxy of disk dust evolution, and (2) to identify new gas-rich disk systems suitable for detailed study with ALMA. About 60% of the sample (31 systems) have LIR/L* > 0.01 typical of T-Tauri or Herbig AeBe stars, and the rest (21 systems) have LIR/L* < 0.01 typical of debris disks. We detect CO(3-2) emission from 20 systems, and 18 (90%) of these have LIR/L* > 0.01. However, the spectra of only four of the newly detected systems appear free of contamination from background or foreground emission from molecular clouds. These include the early-type stars HD 104237 (A4/5V, 116 pc) and HD 98922 (A2 III, 507 pc, as determined in this work), where our observations reveal the presence of CO-rich circumstellar disks for the first time. Of the other detected sources, many could harbor gaseous circumstellar disks, but our data are inconclusive. For these two newly discovered gas-rich disks, we present radiative transfer models that simultaneously reproduce their spectral energy distributions and the 12CO(3-2) line profiles. For both of these systems, the data are fit well by geometrically flat disks, placing them in the small class of non-flaring disks with significant molecular gas reservoirs.
    The Astronomical Journal 05/2014; 148(3). DOI:10.1088/0004-6256/148/3/47 · 4.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Disk winds have been postulated as a mechanism for angular momentum release in protostellar systems for decades. HD 163296 is a Herbig Ae star surrounded by a disk and has been shown to host a series of HH knots (HH 409) with bow shocks associated with the farthest knots. Here we present ALMA Science Verification data of CO J=2-1 and J=3-2 emission which are spatially coincident with the blue shifted jet of HH knots, and offset from the disk by -18.6 km/s. The emission has a double corkscrew morphology and extends more than 10'' from the disk with embedded emission clumps coincident with jet knots. We interpret this double corkscrew as emission from material in a molecular disk wind, and that the compact emission near the jet knots is being heated by the jet which is moving at much higher velocities. We show that the J=3-2 emission is likely heavily filtered by the interferometer, but the J=2-1 emission suffers less due to the larger beam and measurable angular scales. Excitation analysis suggests temperatures exceeding 900 K in these compact features. The high mass loss rate suggests that this star is dispersing the disk faster than it is funneling mass onto the star, signaling the end of the main accretion phase.
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    ABSTRACT: The formation of gaseous giant planets is thought to occur in the first few million years after stellar birth. Models predict that the process produces a deep gap in the dust component (shallower in the gas). Infrared observations of the disk around the young star HD 142527 (at a distance of about 140 parsecs from Earth) found an inner disk about 10 astronomical units (au) in radius (1 au is the Earth-Sun distance), surrounded by a particularly large gap and a disrupted outer disk beyond 140 au. This disruption is indicative of a perturbing planetary-mass body at about 90 au. Radio observations indicate that the bulk mass is molecular and lies in the outer disk, whose continuum emission has a horseshoe morphology. The high stellar accretion rate would deplete the inner disk in less than one year, and to sustain the observed accretion matter must therefore flow from the outer disk and cross the gap. In dynamical models, the putative protoplanets channel outer-disk material into gap-crossing bridges that feed stellar accretion through the inner disk. Here we report observations of diffuse CO gas inside the gap, with denser HCO(+) gas along gap-crossing filaments. The estimated flow rate of the gas is in the range of 7 × 10(-9) to 2 × 10(-7) solar masses per year, which is sufficient to maintain accretion onto the star at the present rate.
    Nature 01/2013; DOI:10.1038/nature11769 · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The vestiges of planet formation have been observed in debris disks harboring young and massive gaseous giants. The process of giant planet formation is terminated by the dissipation of gas in the protoplanetary disk. The gas-rich disk around HD142527 features a small inner disk, a large gap from \sim10 to \sim140AU, and a massive outer disk extending out to \sim300AU. The gap could have been carved-out by a giant planet. We have imaged the outer regions of this gap using the adaptive-optics camera NICI on Gemini South. Our images reveal that the disk is dynamically perturbed. The outer boundary of the roughly elliptical gap appears to be composed of several segments of spiral arms. The stellar position is offset by 0.17+-0.02" from the centroid of the cavity, consistent with earlier imaging at coarser resolutions. These transient morphological features are expected in the context of disk evolution in the presence of a perturbing body located inside the cavity. We perform hydro-dynamical simulations of the dynamical clearing of a gap in a disk. A 10Mjup body in a circular orbit at r = 90AU, perturbs the whole disks, even after thousands of orbits. By then the model disk has an eccentric and irregular cavity, flanked by tightly wound spiral arms, but it is still evolving far from steady state. A particular transient configuration that is a qualitative match to HD142527 is seen at 1.7Myr.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 07/2012; 754(2). DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/754/2/L31 · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clumpy structure in the debris disk around Vega has been previously reported at millimeter wavelengths and attributed to concentrations of dust grains trapped in resonances with an unseen planet. However, recent imaging at similar wavelengths with higher sensitivity has disputed the observed structure. We present three new millimeter-wavelength observations that help to resolve the puzzling and contradictory observations. We have observed the Vega system with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) at a wavelength of 880 um and angular resolution of 5"; with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) at a wavelength of 1.3 mm and angular resolution of 5"; and with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) at a wavelength of 3.3 mm and angular resolution of 10". Despite high sensitivity and short baselines, we do not detect the Vega debris disk in either of the interferometric data sets (SMA and CARMA), which should be sensitive at high significance to clumpy structure based on previously reported observations. We obtain a marginal (3-sigma) detection of disk emission in the GBT data; the spatial distribution of the emission is not well constrained. We analyze the observations in the context of several different models, demonstrating that the observations are consistent with a smooth, broad, axisymmetric disk with inner radius 20-100 AU and width >50 AU. The interferometric data require that at least half of the 860 um emission detected by previous single-dish observations with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope be distributed axisymmetrically, ruling out strong contributions from flux concentrations on spatial scales of <100 AU. These observations support recent results from the Plateau de Bure Interferometer indicating that previous detections of clumpy structure in the Vega debris disk were spurious.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2012; 750(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/750/1/82 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The late stages of evolution of the primordial circumstellar disks surrounding young stars are poorly understood, yet vital to constraining theories of planet formation. We consider basic structural models for the disks around two ~10 Myr old members of the nearby RCrA association: RX J1842.9–3532 and RX J1852.3–3700. We present new arcsecond-resolution maps of their 230 GHz continuum emission from the Submillimeter Array and unresolved CO(3-2) spectra from the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment. By combining these data with broadband fluxes from the literature and infrared fluxes and spectra from the catalog of the Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems Legacy program on the Spitzer Space Telescope, we assemble a multiwavelength data set probing the gas and dust disks. Using the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code RADMC to model simultaneously the spectral energy distribution and millimeter continuum visibilities, we derive basic dust disk properties and identify an inner cavity of radius 16 AU in the disk around RX J1852.3–3700. We also identify an optically thin 5 AU cavity in the disk around RX J1842.9–3532, with a small amount of optically thick material close to the star. The molecular line observations suggest an intermediate disk inclination in RX J1842.9–3532, consistent with the continuum emission. In combination with the dust models, the molecular data allow us to derive a lower CO content than expected, suggesting that the process of gas clearing is likely underway in both systems, perhaps simultaneously with planet formation.
    The Astronomical Journal 08/2010; 140(3):887. DOI:10.1088/0004-6256/140/3/887 · 4.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stars and planets are the fundamental objects of the Universe. Their formation processes, though related, may differ in important ways. Stars almost certainly form from gravitational collapse and probably have formed this way since the first stars lit the skies. Although it is possible that planets form in this way also, processes involving accretion in a circumstellar disk have been favored. High fidelity high resolution images may resolve the question; both processes may occur in some mass ranges. The questions to be answered in the next decade include: By what process do planets form, and how does the mode of formation determine the character of planetary systems? What is the distribution of masses of planets? In what manner does the metallicity of the parent star influence the character of its planetary system? In this paper we discuss the observations of planetary systems from birth to maturity, with an emphasis on observations longward of 100 $\mu$m which may illuminate the character of their formation and evolution. Advantages of this spectral region include lower opacity, availability of extremely high resolution to reach planet formation scales and to perform precision astrometry and high sensitivity to thermal emission.
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    ABSTRACT: We have identified 17 A-type stars in the Galactic Plane that have mid-IR excesses at 8 micron. From the observed colors in the (r'-H_alpha)-(r'-i') plane, we first identified 23050 early A-type main sequence (MS) star candidates in the Isaac Newton Photometric H-Alpha Survey (IPHAS) point source database that are located in Spitzer GLIMPSE Galactic Plane fields. Imposing the requirement that they be detected in all seven 2MASS and IRAC bands led to a sample of 2692 candidate A-type stars with fully sampled 0.6 to 8 micron SEDs. Optical classification spectra of 18 of the IPHAS candidate A-type MS stars showed that all but one could be well fitted using main sequence A-type templates, with the other being an A-type supergiant. Out of the 2692 A-type candidates 17 (0.6%) were found to have 8-micron excesses above the expected photospheric values. Taking into account non-A-Type contamination estimates, the 8-micron excess fraction is adjusted to ~0.7%. The distances to these sources range from 0.7-2.5 kpc. Only 10 out of the 17 excess stars had been covered by Spitzer MIPSGAL survey fields, of which 5 had detectable excesses at 24 micron. For sources with excesses detected in at least two mid-IR wavelength bands, blackbody fits to the excess SEDs yielded temperatures ranging from 270 to 650 K, and bolometric luminosity ratios L_IR/L* from 2.2x10^{-3}-1.9x10^{-2}, with a mean value of 7.9x10^{-3} (these bolometric luminosities are lower limits as cold dust is not detectable by this survey). Both the presence of mid-IR excesses and the derived bolometric luminosity ratios are consistent with many of these systems being in the planet-building transition phase between the early protoplanetary disk phase and the later debris disk phase.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2009; 695(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/695/1/75 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The INT/WFC Photometric H-alpha Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane (IPHAS) is an imaging survey being carried out in H-alpha, r' and i' filters, with the Wide Field Camera (WFC) on the 2.5-metre Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) to a depth of r'=20 (10 sigma). The survey is aimed at revealing large scale structure in our local galaxy, and also the properties of key early and late populations making up the Milky Way. Mapping emission line objects enables a particular focus on objects in the young and old stages of stellar evolution ranging from early T-Tauri stars to late planetary nebulae. In this paper we present the IPHAS Initial Data Release, primarily a photometric catalogue of about 200 million unique objects, coupled with associated image data covering about 1600 square degrees in three passbands. We note how access to the primary data products has been implemented through use of standard virtual observatory publishing interfaces. Simple traditional web access is provided to the main IPHAS photometric catalogue, in addition to a number of common catalogues (such as 2MASS) which are of immediate relevance. Access through the AstroGrid VO Desktop opens up the full range of analysis options, and allows full integration with the wider range of data and services available through the Virtual Observatory. The IDR represents the largest dataset published primarily through VO interfaces to date, and so stands as an examplar of the future of survey data mining. Examples of data access are given, including a cross-matching of IPHAS photometry with sources in the UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey that validates the existing calibration of the best data. Comment: 17 pages, 23 figures, MNRAS in press. Version with full-resolution figures can be found at http://casu.ast.cam.ac.uk/surveys-projects/iphas

Publication Stats

168 Citations
97.23 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • University of Chile
      CiudadSantiago, Santiago, Chile
  • 2010–2015
    • National Radio Astronomy Observatory
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 2014
    • Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array
      Antofagasta, Antofagasta, Chile
  • 2004–2014
    • University of Santiago, Chile
      • Departamento de Economía
      CiudadSantiago, Santiago Metropolitan, Chile
  • 2005
    • University College London
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      London, ENG, United Kingdom