[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A small library consisting of two series of thymidine derivatives containing o-carboranylalkyl groups at the N-3 position was prepared. In both series, alkyl spacers of 2-7 methylene units were placed between the o-carborane cage and the thymidine scaffold. In one series, an additional dihydroxypropyl substituent was introduced at the second carbon atom of the carborane cage. In the series of N-3-substituted carboranyl thymidines without additional dihydroxypropyl substituent, three steps were required to obtain the target compounds in overall yields as high as 75%, while in the series of N-3-substituted carboranyl thymidines with additional dihydroxypropyl substituent, 9-10 steps were necessary with significantly lower overall yield. All target compounds were good substrates of human cytosolic thymidine kinase 1 while they were, if at all, poor substrates of the mitochondrial thymidine kinase 2. There was only a minor difference in phosphorylation rates between N-3-substituted carboranyl thymidines with additional dihydroxypropyl substituents with thymidine kinase 1 (range: 13-49% relative to thymidine) and their counterparts lacking this group (range: 11-57% relative to thymidine). Tether lengths of two and five methylene groups in both series gave the highest enzyme activities in the present study. A hypothesis for this result is presented.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several N-3 substituted carboranyl Thd analogs were synthesized. These agents as well as some non-boronated nucleosides were evaluated in phosphoryl transfer assays with recombinant human TK1 and TK2. For some carboranyl thymidine analogs, TK1 phosphorylation rates approached 38% that of thymidine. Their in vitro cytotoxicty appeared to correlate with the TK1 levels in the tested cells. In some cases increased uptake in tumor cell nuclei compared with the surrounding cytoplasm was detected in vitro.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Derivatives of thymidine containing o-carboranylalkyl groups at the N-3 position and derivatives of 2‘-deoxyuridine containing o-carboranylalkylmercapto groups at the C-5 position were synthesized. The alkyl spacers consist of 4−8 methylene units. The synthesis of the former compounds required 3−4 reaction steps in up to 75% overall yield and that of the latter 9−10 reaction steps with significantly lower overall yield. Derivatives of thymidine substituted with carboranylalkyl substituents at the N-3 position and short spacers were phosphorylated by both recombinant and purified cytosolic thymidine kinase (TK1) to a relatively high degree. None of the tested 2‘-deoxyuridine derivatives possessing carboranyl substituents at the C-5 position were phosphorylated by either recombinant or purified TK1. The amounts of phosphorylation product detected for some of the C-5-substituted nucleosides with recombinant mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK2) were low but significant and decreased with increasing lengths of the alkyl spacer. The data obtained in this study do not seem to support the tether concept applied in the synthesis of the new C-5- and N-3-substituted carboranyl nucleosides intended to reduce possible steric interference in the binding of carboranyl nucleosides with deoxynucleoside kinases. Instead, it appeared that a closer proximity of the bulky carborane moiety to the nucleoside scaffold resulted in better substrate characteristics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of boron compounds with the capacity for selectively targeting tumor cells would offer the potential for specifically destroying such cells using the capture reaction of the nonradioactive 10B nuclide and thermal neutrons. The key problem is the development of compounds with the ability to discriminate between tumor cells and contiguous normal cells and to concentrate in the former at suitable concentration levels. One category of agents that has been explored is boron-containing nucleosides. Such recent structures have been biochemically converted in vitro to their corresponding nucleotides by the action of human thymidine kinase. These studies have attempted to correlate a compound’s physiochemical properties with its biochemical attributes. Since only a fraction of cells are undergoing replication at any one time, requiring the need for nucleic acid precursors, such boron compounds must be only one component of a cocktail of agents that are targeting malignant cells. This presentation is selective, focusing on those boron-containing nucleosides that have been designed for studies with kinases.