[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The metabolic syndrome is characterized by the co-occurrence of several metabolic abnormalities i.e. increased body weight (bw) and insulin resistance (IR) together with adverse changes in plasma lipids. Many of the used animal models for the metabolic syndrome display only a few characteristics of the metabolic syndrome or lack a proper validation of the model by testing whether the response to pharmacological interventions is indeed similar to that seen in human populations. Aims The present study aimed to investigate systematically 1) the appropriate dietary conditions to induce the features of the MetS in APOE*3Leiden.CETP (E3L.CETP) mice and 2) whether the response of this model to different anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic drugs is similar as in humans.
Male obese, IR and dyslipidemic E3L.CETP mice were treated with anti-diabetic drugs rosiglitazone, liraglutide or an experimental HSD-1 inhibitor, or with hypolipidemic drugs atorvastatin, fenofibrate or niacin for 4-6 weeks. The effects on bw, IR and plasma and liver lipids were assessed.
Rosiglitazone, liraglutide and HSD-1 inhibitor significantly decreased glucose and insulin levels or IR. Liraglutide and HSD-1 inhibitor also decreased bw. Atorvastatin, fenofibrate and niacin improved the dyslipidemia and fenofibrate and niacin increased HDL-cholesterol. In addition, hepatic triglycerides were significantly decreased by treatment with rosiglitazone and liraglutide, while hepatic cholesterol esters were significantly decreased by rosiglitazone and atorvastatin.
We conclude that the E3L.CETP mouse is a promising novel translational model to investigate the effects of new drugs, alone or in combination, that affect IR, diabetic dyslipidemia and NAFLD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are stable perfluoroalkyl sulfonate (PFAS) surfactants, and PFHxS and PFOS are frequently detected in human biomonitoring studies. Some epidemiological studies have shown modest positive correlations of serum PFOS with non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (C). This study investigated the mechanism underlying the effect of PFAS surfactants on lipoprotein metabolism. APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice were fed a Western-type diet with PFBS, PFHxS, or PFOS (30, 6, and 3 mg/kg/day, respectively) for 4-6 weeks. Whereas PFBS modestly reduced only plasma triglycerides (TG), PFHxS and PFOS markedly reduced TG, non-HDL-C, and HDL-C. The decrease in very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) was caused by enhanced lipoprotein lipase-mediated VLDL-TG clearance and by decreased production of VLDL-TG and VLDL-apolipoprotein B. Reduced HDL production, related to decreased apolipoprotein AI synthesis, resulted in decreased HDL. PFHxS and PFOS increased liver weight and hepatic TG content. Hepatic gene expression profiling data indicated that these effects were the combined result of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and pregnane X receptor activation. In conclusion, the potency of PFAS to affect lipoprotein metabolism increased with increasing alkyl chain length. PFHxS and PFOS reduce plasma TG and total cholesterol mainly by impairing lipoprotein production, implying that the reported positive correlations of serum PFOS and non-HDL-C are associative rather than causal.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) activator fenofibrate efficiently decreases plasma triglycerides (TG), which is generally attributed to enhanced very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG clearance and decreased VLDL-TG production. However, because data on the effect of fenofibrate on VLDL production are controversial, we aimed to investigate in (more) detail the mechanism underlying the TG-lowering effect by studying VLDL-TG production and clearance using APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice, a unique mouse model for human-like lipoprotein metabolism. Male mice were fed a Western-type diet for 4 weeks, followed by the same diet without or with fenofibrate (30 mg/kg bodyweight/day) for 4 weeks. Fenofibrate strongly lowered plasma cholesterol (-38%) and TG (-60%) caused by reduction of VLDL. Fenofibrate markedly accelerated VLDL-TG clearance, as judged from a reduced plasma half-life of glycerol tri[(3)H]oleate-labeled VLDL-like emulsion particles (-68%). This was associated with an increased post-heparin lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity (+110%) and an increased uptake of VLDL-derived fatty acids by skeletal muscle, white adipose tissue, and liver. Concomitantly, fenofibrate markedly increased the VLDL-TG production rate (+73%) but not the VLDL-apolipoprotein B (apoB) production rate. Kinetic studies using [(3)H]palmitic acid showed that fenofibrate increased VLDL-TG production by equally increasing incorporation of re-esterified plasma fatty acids and liver TG into VLDL, which was supported by hepatic gene expression profiling data. We conclude that fenofibrate decreases plasma TG by enhancing LPL-mediated VLDL-TG clearance, which results in a compensatory increase in VLDL-TG production by the liver.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the pleiotropic effects of a calcium antagonist (amlodipine) on early atherosclerosis development in the presence and absence of an HMG-CoA-reductase inhibitor (atorvastatin) in apolipoprotein E*3-Leiden/human C-reactive protein (E3L/CRP) transgenic mice. Male E3L/CRP transgenic mice were fed a cholesterol-containing diet either with or without amlodipine and/or atorvastatin. After 31 weeks, atherosclerosis in the aortic root area was quantified. Treatment with amlodipine did not significantly lower blood pressure, but resulted in a 43% reduction (P < 0.03) of lesion area as compared with the untreated group. Treatment with atorvastatin resulted in an 80% reduction of lesion area as compared with the untreated group (P < 0.001). Combined treatment with amlodipine and atorvastatin decreased the lesion area by 93%, significantly more than either treatment alone (P < 0.008). Plasma C-reactive protein levels were mildly elevated, on average 10 +/- 6 mg/L, and did not differ between groups, neither on baseline nor during treatment. Treatment with amlodipine, independently of blood pressure lowering, reduced atherosclerosis development in E3L/CRP mice. Atorvastatin had a strong anti-atherosclerotic effect, whereas co-treatment with amlodipine enhanced this effect significantly. Plasma C-reactive protein levels were not affected by any of the three treatments.